5 e posure. We showed here that the activation of AhR by the agonist beta naphtoflavone improves the antiapoptotic effect. On the contrary, the inhibition of AhR diminished the antiapoptotic effect suggesting http://www.selleckchem.com/products/wortmannin.html that AhR is involved in this process. An additional argu ment is brought by the absence of antiapoptotic activity when we tested light PAH, which were previously shown to poorly promote AhR activation. AhR is a cytoplasmic ligand dependent transcription factor which translocates to the nucleus in order to bind specific enobiotic Responsive Elements in the promoter of its target genes, leading to the activation of phase I and II metabolizing enzymes and thus contributing to deto ifi cation.
But in the absence of ligand, many data sug gest other roles than deto ification and recent evidences suggest that AhR inactivation could modify the e pression of numerous genes, including those involved in cell cycle regulation. In accordance with our results, other publications suggest an antiapoptotic activity of AhR by a direct interaction with E2F1 leading to the reduction of E2F1 mediated pro apoptotic genes e pression. This is consistent with the idea that the AhR might modulate cell death at the mitochondrial checkpoint, for instance by upregulating the e pression of antiapoptotic bcl 2, bcl L, mcl 1 or agr2 genes or by repressing the pro apoptotic apaf 1. Moreover, AhR might indirectly regulate apoptosis through the MMP step by increasing the e pression of the anti apototic protein VDAC2 which is known to participate to the permeability transition pore and which also bind to and inhibit the apoptotic protein Bak.
In the light of our observations, it will be interesting to find out the genes encoding mitochondrial regulators which are modulated by AhR and involved in the protection observed after PM2. 5 e posure or B P treatment. It is also important to point out that both A23187 and STS could induce apoptosis via a Ca2 dependent pathway through mitochondrial PTP opening and that VDAC plays a crucial role in the transport of Ca2 into this organelle. Conclusion In summary, Parisian PM2. 5 are not cytoto ic in four cellular models of bronchial epithelial cells. However, PM2. 5 e posure rapidly triggers an antiapoptotic effect at the mitochondrial level, which seems to be linked to the water soluble and some PAH components adsorbed on particles.
Finally, the AhR pathway partially contri butes to the antiapoptotic effect of fine particles. Alto gether, our results allow us to propose the hypothetic model in which desorbed PAH may activate the AhR leading to the regulation of genes involved in the mito chondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. In parallel, the water soluble fraction Anacetrapib seems to have similar effect on mitochondria by regulating unknown pathways.