The SDRs-mediated posttranscriptional processing events including

The SDRs-mediated posttranscriptional processing events including cis- and trans-actions were experimentally detected in majority of the predicted candidates. Extensive sequence analysis demonstrates several types of SDR-associated

splicing peculiarities including partial exon deletion, exon fragment repetition, exon fragment scrambling and trans-splicing that result in either loss of partial exon or unusual exonic sequence Selleck SB203580 rearrangements within or between RNA molecules. In addition, we show that the paired presence of SDR is necessary but not sufficient in SDR-mediated splicing in transient expression and stable transformation systems. We also show prokaryote is incapable of SDR-mediated premRNA splicing.”
“Objectives Few studies have focused on the psychological impact of postoperative complications after breast reconstruction (BR). Baf-A1 mouse As postoperative

complications after BR usually lead to a prolonged recovery time and sometimes require additional surgery, the short-term impact on distress was investigated. Methods Pre- and postoperatively, psychological questionnaires were sent to 152 women who underwent either implant BR or deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap BR (DIEPBR). In addition, patients and physicians’ reports of postoperative complications during the first 46 weeks after Rabusertib cost BR were scored. The course of anxiety, depression and cancer-specific distress, and the effect of complications on distress were investigated. Results Implant BR patients reported decreased anxiety after surgery, and both groups reported reduced cancer-specific distress after surgery. However, depressive symptoms tended to increase after DIEPBR. If complications occurred, both reconstruction

groups reported increased depressive and anxiety symptoms, and DIEPBR patients even had depressive symptoms of clinical concern. A significant number of patients with complications reported alarming levels of distress. Timing and laterality were not significantly correlated with distress. Conclusions Complications after BR have a significant impact on emotional well-being shortly after surgery. As distress affects quality of life and health outcomes, it is of great importance to offer psychological support to these patients. Distress can be evaluated by monitoring the emotional impact of BR during post-surgery consults, or with the standard use of short psychological questionnaires that patients can complete at home. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Renin-angiotensin system blockade retards the progression of diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease of the native kidneys.

The recipient of a single kidney was rapidly transplantectomized

The recipient of a single kidney was rapidly transplantectomized and treated with actinomycin. At 2 years, she remains in remission. Liver recipient showed intestinal metastasis and died from digestive hemorrhage after an initial response to chemotherapy. Heart recipient had an initial remission under EMA-CO, but at the last report, he showed diffuse metastasis. PND-1186 ic50 Published reports on CC transmission are rare. The long-lasting remission of our pancreas-kidney recipient and her good outcome after

2 years make our observation original. Moreover, the high rate of transmission demonstrates the high malignant potential of CC in immunosuppressed patients. Chemotherapy combined or not with transplantectomy in case of nonvital organ, should be discussed.”
“Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) for treating radiation cystitis a long-term follow-up study was done in patients with prostate cancer, the second most PF-04929113 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor common malignancy in Japan. Patients and Methods: A total of 38 patients at an age of 68 +/- 8 years with radiation cystitis following irradiation of prostate cancer were treated with HBO at 2 absolute atmospheric pressures for 90 min daily. The average number of HBO treatment sessions in each patient was 62 +/- 12. The follow-up period was 11.6 +/- 3.7 years. We evaluated objective and subjective symptoms periodically with special

reference to the initiation timing of HBO therapy. Results: High efficacy ratios

of objective and subjective findings were obtained at 2 and 4 (79-95%) years, respectively. After 7 years’ follow-up, these ratios decreased slightly (72-83%) but still remained stable thereafter (75-88%) without any serious accident. Comparison of late morbidity scores before and 11.6 years after HBO therapy showed significant improvement (p < 0.0005). Twenty-eight patients (74%) obtained nonrecurrent outcome. They had received 18% lower AR-13324 Cell Cycle inhibitor (p < 0.001) radiation dosage than recurrent patients. The interval between the onset of hematuria and start of HBO treatment in nonrecurrent patients was 30% shorter (p < 0.001) than that of recurrent patients. Conclusions: We elucidated the long-term safety and beneficial effect of HBO therapy of radiation cystitis in patients with prostate cancer. Early application of HBO treatment after the onset of hematuria appears to produce favorable outcome. Copyright (c) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“A 15-year-old female presented to a pediatric emergency department with glycosuria, ketonuria, and hyperglycemia and was admitted with a presumed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. The patient required no insulin therapy and only minor dietary modification to maintain euglycemia. Clinical examination and laboratory findings revealed a primary diagnosis of Graves’ hyperthyroidism with associated impaired glucose tolerance.

stirring rate 300 rpm, extraction temperature 70 degrees C, liqui

stirring rate 300 rpm, extraction temperature 70 degrees C, liquid to solid ratio 5.2:1 and extraction time 52 min. The physicochemical properties were determined to evaluate the quality of seed oil. The chemical composition of extracted seed oil was analyzed by GC-MS. This novel extraction technique provided high throughput and high quality oil. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background and objective: Recently, angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) was identified

as a ligand of the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase, Tie-2. Ang-2 is an angiopoietin-1 antagonist that plays a role in vascular destabilization and remodelling, which may increase in some diseases. However, serumAng-2 levels have not been evaluated in patients YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 with COPD. In this study, we examined Navitoclax price serum Ang-2 concentrations in patients experiencing COPD exacerbations and in patients with stable COPD.

Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 49 patients experiencing COPD exacerbations, 22 patients with stable COPD and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum Ang-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA.


Serum Ang-2 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD than in those with stable COPD or control subjects, and were significantly positively correlated with serum CRP levels but inversely correlated with PaO(2) in patients with exacerbations. In addition, Ang-2 levels decreased significantly after clinical recovery from the acute see more exacerbation.

Conclusions: Serum Ang-2 levels are significantly elevated during acute exacerbations of COPD, as compared with stable COPD.”
“Hypertension is the most-prevalent modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypertension is highly prevalent among older adults (>= 65 years), and aging of the population will substantially increase the prevalence of this condition. Age-related endothelial dysfunction and increased arterial stiffness contribute to the increased prevalence of hypertension, particularly systolic hypertension, among the elderly.

The incidence of some forms of secondary hypertension also increases with age, mainly owing to the use of drugs (especially NSAIDs that have pressor effects) and the presence of chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and renal artery stenosis. Guidelines differ in thresholds and goals for antihypertensive drug therapy in the elderly because of a paucity of high-level evidence from randomized controlled trials and inconsistencies in the definition of ‘elderly’. Medical treatment of hypertension reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the elderly, and all guidelines recommend lifestyle modifications and medical treatment for elderly patients whose blood pressure exceeds prescribed thresholds and who are at moderate or high cardiovascular disease risk.

8% of overall physical activity energy expenditure Levels

8% of overall physical activity energy expenditure. Levels

of nonexercise physical activity were inversely associated with circulating concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 (P-trend=0.004), IL-1 (P-trend=0.03) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-) (P-trend=0.01). Multivariable-adjusted concentrations of these cytokines were 28.2% for IL-6, 22.1% for IL-1, and 15.9% for TNF- lower in the highest quartile of nonexercise physical activity compared with the lowest selleck screening library quartile. Similar inverse associations were found for two major components of nonexercise physical activity, walking and biking for transportation, and household activity. No significant associations were observed between nonexercise physical activity and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Daily nonexercise physical activity is associated with lower levels of systemic inflammation. This finding may have important public health implications because this type of activity is the main contributor to overall physical activity among middle-aged and elderly women.”
“The palliative therapy effect by docetaxel for CRPC patients makes it urgent to improve the therapy. It was suggested that PI3K and androgen receptor-directed combination therapy may be effective for prostate cancer (PCa) patients PTEN negative. However, for those patients

PTEN positive, the mechanism of anti-apoptosis survival of cancer cells is not yet well defined. Amplification of AURKA has been detected in 5% of PCa. In this work, Du145, a PTEN positive PCa cell model, was employed to investigate the role of aurora kinase a (AURKA) on cell BEZ235 in vivo growth. Inhibition of AURKA expression by shRNA markedly reduced prostate cancer cell viability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AURKA inhibition induced a remarkable downregulation of AKT activity Fer-1 manufacturer and Bax induction. Moreover, specific inhibition of the activity of AURKA, but not other aurora family members, by small molecular chemical inhibitors induced significant cell killing effects. Notably, AURKA inhibition sensitized prostate cancer cells to docetaxel treatment. Our work suggests that AURKA-directed monotherapy or combination therapy with docetaxel could be a potent

treatment for PCa patients in future.”
“Objective: To review the effectiveness of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor (AGI) therapy in the treatment of hypoglycemia after Roux-en-y gastric surgery.

Methods: Retrospective case review.

Results: Four patients who previously underwent Roux-en-y gastric bypass were evaluated because of severe symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemia that was unresponsive to a low-carbohydrate diet. Mixed-meal testing confirmed hyperinsulinemia. Other causes of hypoglycemia were ruled out by a combination of clinical examination, endocrine testing, and computed tomography imaging. Symptomatic hypoglycemia resolved in all 4 patients after AGI therapy was started. One patient could not tolerate long-term therapy because of a rash.

In a person with suggestive histological features, this finding s

In a person with suggestive histological features, this finding should

prompt testing for DSAs. Even in the absence of typical histological features of AMR, the combined presence of DSAs and diffuse C4d positivity is associated with more frequent or severe acute and chronic rejection, which may also warrant treatment with antibody-depleting Selleck AR-13324 immunosuppression.”

In human urinary bladder, beta3-ARs play an important role in promoting detrusor relaxation during the storage phase of the micturition cycle. The present study investigated whether a Trp64Arg polymorphism of the gene encoding the beta3-AR is associated with overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome.


This study involved 100 women with OAB and 101 healthy control women without OAB. Hair root samples were obtained from all subjects and used for beta3-AR gene analysis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction

fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to analyze a polymorphism in the gene of Trp64Arg.


The overall frequency of the 64Arg variant (heterozygous plus homozygous) in OAB patients was 47% and significantly higher than the frequency of 22.8% found in non-OAB control women. Within OAB patients, numbers of micturitions per day, urgency episodes per day, and urgency incontinence episodes per day in the 64Arg variant carriers were not significantly different from those in the normal Thiazovivin cell line gene carriers.


This study shows that LY2090314 purchase the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta3-AR gene is weakly but significantly associated with OAB syndrome. Neurourol. Urodynam. 33:400-402, 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose of review

Cases of de-novo autoimmune hepatitis/plasma cell hepatitis ( PCH) are increasingly being diagnosed by liver transplant centers. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood but this entity appears to be a variant of rejection. Herein, we review recent clinical reports of patients developing PCH.

Recent findings

Histologically, PCH is a challenging diagnosis, especially in the setting of

recurrent hepatitis C and, in some cases, can be mistaken for acute cellular rejection. Recent case reports and case-control studies have shown that interferon appears to trigger PCH in hepatitis C posttransplant patients. Optimization of the immunosuppression regimen was found to prevent the development of PCH. In the nonhepatitis C posttransplant patient, tacrolimus-based immunosuppression appears to have some protective effect from PCH development. A combination therapy of cyclosporine and everolimus has also been shown to be effective in treating PCH.


PCH is a variant of rejection and is a cause of late graft loss post liver transplantation, especially in patients with hepatitis C.

Methods: The focus group

Methods: The focus group selleck compound met during the opening of a new CKD outpatient facility. It consisted of 12 patients with long-term experience of CKD,

dialysis and transplantation; they had been followed previously by the senior physician, who moderated the discussion. The discussion was tape-recorded and the results were summarized and approved by all participants.

Results: The group made 10 major suggestions: 1. Therapeutic continuity in all disease phases, from pre-dialysis to transplantation; 2. Possibility to choose the reference physician; 3. Strict integration with the nursing activities; 4. Organizational flexibility, to adapt to the needs of daily life; 5. To be “”fully”" taken care of, with organizational support for blood tests, imaging and consultations; 6. Need for time with the reference physician in critical phases of the disease; 7. Identification of a network of consultants, in keeping with the need for continuity of care; 8. Educational sessions; 9. Meetings for critical discussion of organizational performances; BEZ235 solubility dmso 10. As a setting: a home for the disease

and not a disease to take home.

Conclusion: Continuity of care and flexibility of organization, allowing time for education and discussion, are the quality requirements of our CKD patients.”
“A pair of novel tetrahydrobenzofuran-2,5-dione derivatives with a unique C-18 carbon skeleton, panamonon A (1) and B (2), was isolated from the leaves and twigs of Litsea panamonja (Nees) Hook. f. These new compounds contain an unprecedented C-18 carbon skeleton consisting of a characteristic tetrahydrobenzofuran-2,5(3H,6H)-dione ALK inhibitor core with a biosynthetically extended geranyl side chain, designated

as “”panamonane”". Their structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 and 2 is discussed. The isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic activities against human tumor cell lines HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7, and SW480. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“In addition to known dibenzofuran derivatives such as (-)-usnic acid, (-)-isousnic acid and (-)-placodiolic acid, a Leprocaulon microscopicum acetone extract yielded a new compound, (+/-)-9-O-methylplacodiolic acid in a keto-enol equilibrium focused on the C-ring. Structures were established using mass spectrometry and combination of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. C-13 assignments of placodiolic acid were revised. Tautomers of the (+/-)-9-O-methylplacodiolic acid were only separated by GC and a thorough fragmentation study confirmed the structural features. To complete the study, evaluation of antiproliferative effects on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cells showed moderate activity for (-)-usnic acid only. (C) 2012 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

Using the principle of Hausdorff distance to examine phase-to-pha

Using the principle of Hausdorff distance to examine phase-to-phase regional endocardial displacement, dyskinetic/akinetic areas were identified

at the instant of peak basal contraction velocity. Using a three-dimensional (3D) surface clipping tool, the maximally scarred, dyskinetic or akinetic LV antero-apical areas were virtually resected and a new apex was created. A virtual rectangular patch AC220 manufacturer was created upon the clipped surface LV model by 3D Delaunay triangulation. Presurgical endocardial mechanical function quantified from cine cardiac magnetic resonance, using a technique of spherical harmonics (SPHARM) surface parameterization, was applied onto the virtually clipped and patched LV surface model. Finally, the in silico model of post-SVR LV shape was analysed for quantification of regional left ventricular volumes (RLVVs) and function. This was tested in 2 patients with post-myocardial infarction antero-apical LV aneuryms. Left ventricular mechanical dysynchrony was evaluated by RLVV analysis of pre-SVR, in silico post-SVR and actual post-SVR LV endocardial surface data.

Following exclusion of the scarred areas, the virtual resected LV model demonstrated significantly

lesser areas of akinesia. The decreases in regional LV volumes in the in silico modelling this website were significant and comparable with the actual decreases following SVR. Both the regional end diastolic volume (EDV) and end systolic volume (ESV) at the apex decreased significantly

corresponding to greater reductions in apical volumes by the technique of rectangular patch plasty (apical EDV 2.1607 +/- 0.20577 to 0.4774 +/- 0.1775 ml, P = 0.007; apical ESV 1.9708 +/- 0.36451 to 0.442 +/- 0.047 ml, P = 0.013).

This pilot study was done using novel in silico techniques for virtual surgical modelling, which helped in accurate estimation and planning of optimal LV restoration by SVR.”
“Aims To evaluate bladder vascular resistance before and after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Methods Thirty-three patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction were prospectively studied. We analyzed correlations Captisol purchase of bladder vascular resistance with various factors including age, vascular risk factors, symptom score, prostate volume (PV), and urodynamic parameters before and 3 months after TURP. Using contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasonography for measuring bladder vascular resistance, resistive index (RI) of vesical arteries was calculated. Results Compared with healthy young male (n?=?10) and age-matched controls (n?=?10), the study patients had a higher preoperative RI (0.403 +/- 0.100, 0.436 +/- 0.042, and 0.561 +/- 0.089, respectively; P?<?0.01). Preoperative RI was significantly higher in patients with PV?=?60?ml versus <60?ml (0.604 +/- 0.078 vs. 0.525 +/- 0.082; P?<?0.01), and in patients with severe obstruction versus mild/moderate obstruction (0.615 +/- 0.087 vs. 0.

To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced

To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced

compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) was assessed. The biomagnification of MeO-PBDEs (2′-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47) was lower in harbour seals (all biomagnification factors (BMFs) < 1) compared to the same age-gender groups Caspase inhibitor of the harbour porpoises (all BMFs > 1). This may indicate a better metabolic breakdown of MeO-PBDEs in harbour seals, as was previously suggested for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In both predators, 6-MeO-BDE 47 had the highest concentrations (range: 45-483 ng/g; lw and 2-38 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals.

respectively) compared to 2′-MeO-BDE 68 (range: 2-28 ng/g lw and 1-6 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively). In general, the highest concentrations were found in juveniles, suggesting an increased biotransformation capacity with age or the influence of dilution by growth for both species. Here we show that naturally-produced brominated organic compounds can biomagnify and accumulate in North Sea top predators, although to a lesser extent than anthropogenic lipophilic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or PBDEs. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Although a great number of studies may be found in literature about the parameters affecting the size of chitosan nanoparticles, no systematic work so far has detailed the factors affecting the polydispersity of chitosan as an important factor determining the quality of many preparations. Herein, using artificial neural networks (ANNs), four independent variables, namely, pH and concentration of chitosan solution as well as time and amplitude of sonication of the

solution were studied to determine their influence on the polydispersity of solution. We found that in an ultrasound prepared nanodispersion of 3-deazaneplanocin A purchase chitosan, all the four input parameters have reverse but non-linear relation with the polydispersity of the nanoparticles.”
“Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of intratympanic steroid injection (ITS), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), and combination therapy as salvage treatment in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) after failure of systemic therapy.

Study Design: A historical cohort study.

Setting: Academic medical center.

Subjects and Methods: One hundred three refractory SSNHL patients are enrolled. Among them, 35 received ITS alone (ITS group), 22 received HBO alone (HBO group), 19 received combined ITS and HBO (combined group), and 27 received no salvage therapies (control group). Hearing outcomes were determined by hearing gains in pure-tone average (PTA), recovery rate, and word recognition score (WRS) measured by audiometry before and after salvage therapies.

Results: In comparison with the steamed diet, 1 mo of consuming t

Results: In comparison with the steamed diet, 1 mo of consuming the high-heat-treated diet induced significantly lower insulin sensitivity and plasma concentrations of long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids and vitamins C and E [-17% (P < 0.002), -13% (P < 0.0001), and -8% (P < 0.01), respectively]. However,

concentrations of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides increased [+5% (P < 0.01) and +9% (P < 0.01), respectively].

Conclusions: A diet that is based on high-heat-treated foods increases markers associated with an enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in healthy people. Replacing high-heat-treatment techniques by mild cooking techniques may help to positively modulate Selleckchem GSK2118436 biomarkers associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 91: 1220-6.”
“Occurrence of hypsarrhythmia after the age of 3 years is rare. The objective of this study is to describe a group of patients who have persistence of hypsarrhythmia after the age of 3 years. The authors retrospectively reviewed the EEGs of 24 patients with hypsarrhythmia. Electroencephalographies (EEGs) were scored using a hypsarrhythmia scale. The clinical data of 7 patients with EEG scores greater than 9 at ages >= 3 years were analyzed. The mean age was 5.7 years (range, 3-8.7 years). EEG background amplitudes ranged from 200 to 500 mu V in

5 patients and it was greater than 500 mu V in the other 2. Six patients had electrodecremental responses. The etiology was developmental in 3 patients, mitochondrial Blebbistatin supplier disease in 2, and

hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in 2. Our study suggests that a subgroup of patients with hypsarrhythmia may not transition to a Lennox-Gastaut pattern or normalization after the age of 3 years.”
“Background: Changes in body composition underlying the association between weight loss and higher mortality are not clear. Objective: The objective was to investigate the association between changes in body composition of the appendicular (4 limbs) and central (trunk) compartments and all-cause mortality in men.

Design: In men aged >= 50 y, body composition was assessed every 18 mo for 7.5 y with a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Mortality was assessed for 10 y. Data were analyzed by logistic regression and Cox HKI-272 model and adjusted for age, body mass index (BMI), educational level, lifestyle, physical performance, comorbidities, body composition, and serum concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol.

Results: Of 715 men who were followed up, 137 (19.2%) died. Mortality was higher in men with the fastest weight loss [lowest compared with middle tertile odds ratio (OR): 2.31; 99% CI: 1.05, 5.09]. Faster loss of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) was predictive of mortality (lowest compared with middle tertile OR: 3.60; 99% CI: 1.64, 7.89).

Four hour after culturing with TGF beta 1, CCF cultures were trea

Four hour after culturing with TGF beta 1, CCF cultures were treated with 0.06% SAHA for 5 min (group 1) and for 24 h (group 2), representing single and multiple dose treatment regimes, respectively. Cultures were then further incubated in the presence of TGF beta 1 (1 ng/mu L) under serum-free conditions until they reached 70% confluence. Trypan blue exclusion, immunocytochemistry, and TUNEL assays were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of SAHA. Real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the efficacy of SAHA to inhibit canine corneal selleck inhibitor myofibroblast formation. Results Topical

SAHA application in both treatment groups successfully decreased a-smooth muscle actin expression when compared to the TGF beta 1 only treatment group (P < 0.05). Tested SAHA did not affect CCF phenotype or cellular viability and did not cause significant cell death. Conclusions Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid safely and effectively inhibits TGF beta 1-induced CCFs transformation to myofibroblast in vitro.”
“A new benzofuran derivative (1) was isolated from the roots of Petasites hybridus and its structure was determined as 1-(6-hydroxy-2-isopropenyl-1-benzofuran-5-yl)-1-ethanone by spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The compound 1 showed moderate inhibitory

activity on human breast cancer MCF-7 Cl-amidine ic50 cells proliferation in vitro with an IC50 value of 48 mu mol/L. The interaction of bovine selleck chemicals serum albumin (BSA) and DNA with compound 1 were studied in an aqueous solution under physiological conditions by UV-vis spectroscopy. (C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual’s capacity to maintain

homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan.

METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis.