Subsequent damage to PSII might be the reason for the slow, or la

Subsequent damage to PSII might be the reason for the slow, or lack of recovery, for most of the parameters measured. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Write margin analysis of the bit patterned media (BPM) was experimentally carried out using a static tester. Sample BPM were fabricated from hard/soft-stacked (exchange-coupled composite; ECC) base media with a Pt/Co multilayer hard layer and a Co soft layer. Write

margins of 60-nm-dot (140 nm period) and 40-nm-dot (100 nm period) media were confirmed to be 80 nm and 50 nm, respectively. An analysis of the margin loss factor found a large residual margin loss. The loss factors of 60-nm-dot and 40-nm-dot media were 57 nm and 44 nm, respectively, and these values almost correspond to the dot diameter. The residual margin loss was identified Selleck GM6001 as due to the formation of a multi-domain structure within some dots under certain recording conditions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3554201]“
“PURPOSE: To compare anterior chamber parameters in normal eyes and eyes with mild to moderate keratoconus corneas using rotating

Scheimpflug imaging and evaluate trends in corneal protrusion progression.

SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD) at the corneal center, thinnest point of the cornea, and 1.0 mm, 2.0 mm, and 3.0 mm paracentrally; central pachymetry; and posterior elevation were check details measured by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam) in eyes with keratoconus and eyes of refractive surgery candidates. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to identify predictors

of keratoconus. Correlations between posterior elevation and ACD at minimum pachymetry were analyzed by linear and piecewise linear regression.

RESULTS: The keratoconus group comprised 41 eyes (24 patients) and the control group, 70 eyes (41 patients). The ACD was significantly deeper in the keratoconus group than in the control group (P<.05) Crenigacestat and was significantly correlated with posterior elevation. In the multivariable GEE model, posterior elevation (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; P<.001) and ACD at minimum pachymetry (OR, 7.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-42.05) were significant predictors of keratoconus. Segmented analysis of the correlation between posterior elevation and central ACD showed a better fit to data than linear regression and identified a 40 mu m threshold level for posterior elevation. The GEE determined 450 mu m as a similar threshold for central corneal thickness.

CONCLUSION: There was a threshold level of posterior corneal elevation and corneal thickness values beyond which the level of corneal protrusion in keratoconus accelerated.

This phenomenon, combined with chronic administration of L-DOPA,

This phenomenon, combined with chronic administration of L-DOPA, leads to persistent and intermittent hyper-activation of the cAMP signaling cascade. Activation of cAMP signaling results in increased activity of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and of the dopamine and cAMP-dependent phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32), which regulate several downstream effector targets implicated in the control of the excitability of striatal

MSNs. Dyskinesia is also accompanied by augmented activity of the extra cellular Dibutyryl-cAMP in vivo signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), which are involved in the control of transcriptional and translational efficiency. Pharmacological or genetic interventions aimed at reducing abnormal signal transduction at the level of these various intracellular cascades have been shown to attenuate LID in different animal models. For instance, LID is reduced in mice deficient for DARPP-32, or following inhibition of PKA. Blockade of ERK obtained genetically or using specific inhibitors is also able to attenuate dyskinetic behavior in rodents and non-human primates. Finally, administration buy SU5402 of rapamycin, a drug which blocks mTORC1, results in a strong reduction

of LID. This review focuses on the abnormalities in signaling affecting the D1R-expressing MSNs and on their potential relevance

for the design of novel anti-dyskinetic therapies.”
“Purpose Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. Interleukin-6 is involved in the pathophysiological characteristics associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The-174 G/C IL-6 gene promoter region single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may influence or modulate gene function and/or transcriptional efficiency. The current study was aimed to evaluate the association between IL-6 gene -174 G/C promoter polymorphism and Polycystic Ovary SB202190 solubility dmso Syndrome in South Indian women.

In the present study, we examined the genotypic and allele distribution among the PCOS patients (n = 104) and controls (n = 156). The genotypes of IL-6 -174 G/C SNP were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The allele frequency and genotype distributions of cases and controls were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.

The genotype frequencies observed among the 104 cases and 156 controls were G/G 66.3 % and 49.4 %, G/C 29.8 % and 46.8 %, and C/C 3.8 % and 3.8 % (OR: 1.6226, CI: 1.0574-2.4899). The G and C allele frequencies were 81.25 % and 72.8 %, and 18.75 % and 27.2 %, respectively. The genotype and allele distribution revealed significant differences between PCOS patients and controls (all P values < 0.05).

There were significant differences among the journals with regard

There were significant differences among the journals with regard to the use of the intention-to-treat principle. The relative number of trials in which the principle was used increased each year. The authors adhered to the strict definition of the intention-to-treat principle in forty-five of the ninety-six studies in which it was claimed that this principle had been used. In forty-four randomized trials, patients who had been lost to follow-up were excluded from the final analysis; LY333531 in vitro this practice was most notable in studies of

surgical interventions. The most popular method of adjusting for missing data was the “”last observation carried forward”" technique.

Conclusions: In most of the randomized clinical trials published in the orthopaedic literature, the investigators did not adhere to the stringent use of the intention-to-treat principle, with the most conspicuous problem being a lack of accounting for patients lost to follow-up. This omission

might introduce bias to orthopaedic randomized clinical trials and their analysis.”
“In this study, the composition of fatty oil from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and its cardiotonic activity on the heart isolated from a toad were studied. Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions of fatty oil were prepared ALK targets by the perfusion method. The fatty oil had a positive inotropic effect on isolated rat hearts at a concentration between 5 x 10(-3) and 2 x 10(-2) mL/10 mL, and the effect was in positive correlation with the concentration of calcium ions. In addition, this effect was inhibited by 2 mg/mL nifedipine, suggesting that the cardiotonic mechanism could be responsible for accelerating the inflow of calcium ions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the main constituents of the fatty oil were 9-octadecenoic acid (43.32%), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (42.57%), hexadecanoic acid (4.76%), 9-eicosenoic acid (2.95%), stearic acid (2.41%) and arachidic acid (0.81%). This preliminary study revealed that the fatty

oil of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae exhibited remarkable cardiotonic activity in the tested models, and it is necessary to further reveal the effective substances of the fatty oil.”
“The goal of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of patient-specific CT-based rapid prototype drill templates for C2 translaminar p38 MAPK inhibitor review screw insertion.

Volumetric CT scanning was performed in 32 cadaveric cervical spines. Using computer software, the authors constructed drill templates that fit onto the posterior surface of the C2 vertebrae with drill guides to match the slope of the patient’s lamina. Thirty-two physical templates were created from the computer models using a rapid prototyping machine. The drill templates were used to guide drilling of the lamina and post-operative CT images were obtained. The entry point and direction of the planned and inserted screws were measured and compared.

Sixty-four C2 translaminar screws were placed without violating the cortical bone of a single lamina.

5% and 37 3% “
“Objective-To develop a syndromic surveillanc

5% and 37.3%.”
“Objective-To develop a syndromic surveillance system based on visual inspection from outside the livestock pens that could be used for detection of disease among livestock entering an auction market.

Design-Cross-sectional study.

Animals-All livestock (beef and dairy cattle, sheep, goats, horses, and pigs) entering a single auction market in Colorado during 30 business days.

Procedures-Livestock

were enumerated and visually inspected for clinical signs of disease by a veterinarian outside the pens, and clinical signs that were GS-1101 observed were categorized into 12 disease syndromes. Frequency of clinical signs and disease syndromes was then calculated.

Results-Data MK-2206 nmr were recorded for a total of 29,371 animal observation days. For all species combined, the most common disease syndrome was respiratory tract disease (218.9 observations/10, 000 animal observation days), followed by thin body condition and abnormal ambulation or posture (80.7 and 272 observations/10, 000 animal observation days, respectively). Together, these 3 disease syndromes accounted for 92.8% of all clinical signs of disease observed. The syndromes least commonly identified were non-injury-related hemorrhage, death, and injury-related hemorrhage (0.0, 0.3, and 0.7 observations/10,000

animal observation days, respectively).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that a syndromic surveillance system based on visual inspection alone could be developed to identify

possible disease conditions among livestock at an auction market. Further studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of visual observation in detecting disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2009;234:658-664)”
“This paper reviews the state of knowledge on modelling air flow and concentration fields at road intersections. The first part covers the available literature from the past two decades on experimental (both field and wind tunnel) and modelling activities in order to provide insight into the physical basis of flow behaviour at a typical cross-street intersection. This check details is followed by a review of associated investigations of the impact of traffic-generated localised turbulence on the concentration fields due to emissions from vehicles. There is a discussion on the role of adequate characterisation of vehicle-induced turbulence in making predictions using hybrid models, combining the merits of conventional approaches with information obtained from more detailed modelling. This concludes that, despite advancements in computational techniques, there are crucial knowledge gaps affecting the parameterisations used in current models for individual exposure.

6, p = 0 006) and hospital (19 vs 11, p = 0 002) Mortality was

6, p = 0.006) and hospital (19 vs. 11, p = 0.002). Mortality was 6% (n = 1) in the failed group and 0.4% (n = 1) in the successful extubation group.

Conclusions: Independent risk factors for trauma patients to fail extubation include spine fracture, initial intubation for airway, GCS at extubation, and delirium tremens. Trauma patients with these four risk factors should be observed for 24 hours after extubation,

because the mean time to failure was 15 hours. In addition, increased complications, extended need for mechanical ventilation, and prolonged ICU and hospital stays should be expected for trauma patients who fail extubation.”
“Adversity during early life can lead to diverging endocrine and behavioral responses to stress in adulthood. In our laboratory, we evaluated the long-term effects of early life adversity and its interaction with chronic stress during adulthood. We propose this as a model of vulnerability to dysregulation of the stress response. Tideglusib supplier We hypothesized that rats subjected to both protocols would show differential expression of corticosteroid receptors measured as number of neurons immunoreactive for glucocorticoid receptors (GR) or mineralocorticoid receptors (MR), in limbic areas related to the control of anxiety-like behavior. We also evaluated the effect of amitriptyline expecting to prevent the outcomes

of the model. Male Wistar rats were separated from the mother (MS) for 4.5 h every day for the first 3 weeks of life. From postnatal day selleck 50, rats were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) during 24 d (five types of stressor at different times of day). During the stress protocol, the rats were administered amitriptyline (10

mg/kg i.p.) daily. MS evoked lower MR expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus and this was reversed by amitriptyline. Furthermore, CVS increased MR immunoreactivity in the hippocampal area CA2 and increased anxious behavior; both effects check details were prevented by the antidepressant. When MS was combined with CVS during adulthood, there was a reduction of locomotor activity, with no corrective effect of amitriptyline. The differential effects among groups could mean that MS would promote an alternative phenotype that is expressed when facing CVS (a double hit) later in life.”
“Progression of degeneration is often described in patients with initially degenerated segment adjacent to fusion (iASD) at the time of surgery. The aim of the present study was to compare dynamic fixation of a clinically asymptomatic iASD, with circumferential lumbar fusion alone. 60 patients with symptomatic degeneration of L5/S1 or L4/L5 (Modic a parts per thousand yen 2A degrees) and asymptomatic iASD (Modic = 1A degrees, confirmed by discography) were divided into two groups. 30 patients were treated with circumferential single-level fusion (SLF). In dynamic fixation transition (DFT) patients, additional posterior dynamic fixation of iASD was performed.

The accelerating effect of incorporated polymers decreased in the

The accelerating effect of incorporated polymers decreased in the following order: P(L-2HB)/P(D-2HB) > P(D-2HB) > P(L-2HB) > none, for heating and isothermal crystallization for T-c of 130 and 135 degrees C and P(D-2HB) > P(L-2HB)/P(D-2HB) > none > P(L-2HB), for cooling. The P(L-2HB)/P(D-2HB) homo-stereocomplex (HMSC) crystallites, P(D-2HB)/PLLA hetero-stereocomplex (HTSC) crystallites, and P(L-2HB) or P(D-2HB) homo-crystallites are found to be promising biodegradable nucleating agents for PLLA homo-crystallization. The P(L-2HB)/P(D-2HB) HMSC crystallites are most effective during isothermal crystallization and nonisothermal crystallization with

heating, www.selleckchem.com/products/i-bet151-gsk1210151a.html whereas the P(D-2HB)/PLLA HTSC crystallites are most effective during nonisothermal crystallization with cooling from the melt. In addition to the nucleating effect, the plasticizing effect of free P(2HB) chains increases both G and the PLLA spherulite number per unit mass. These effects result in accelerated crystallization of PLLA homo-crystallites. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 321-333, 2011″
“The magnetization dynamics of Co(5 nm)/Ru/Co(5 nm) trilayers with Ru thicknesses from 0.3-0.6 nm is experimentally and Selleck Raf inhibitor theoretically investigated. The coupling between the Co layers is antiferromagnetic

(AFM) and yields a stable AFM domain structure with frozen domain walls. Comparing high-resolution magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and pump-probe measurements, we analyze the behavior of the films for different field-strength regimes. For moderate

magnetic fields, pump-probe measurements provide dynamic characterization of the coupled precessional modes in the GHz range. The dynamics at small fields is realized by the pinning of AFM domain walls at inhomogeneities. The MFM images yield a domain-wall width that varies from about 150-60 nm. This Omipalisib supplier behavior is explained in terms of a micromagnetic local-anisotropy model. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3540406]“
“Thyroid cancer comprises a broad spectrum of diseases with variable prognoses. Although most patients with this disease have excellent overall survival, there are some who do not fare so well. With the worldwide increase in incidence, the need to identify which tumours pose the greatest risk to patients is more acute than ever. This paper will discuss this rising trend in incidence with an analysis of the possible reasons for the increase. In addition, the paper will explore the factors that portend a worse prognosis for the individual patient. Finally, the limitations of the current staging systems will be discussed, with particular emphasis on why they are not as informative in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Electromagnetic tracking for puncture of renal collecting system

Electromagnetic tracking for puncture of renal collecting system using a sensor at the tip of ureteral catheter worked in an in-vivo model of porcine ureter and kidney. Attitude tracking for ultrasound-guided puncture of renal tumours by accelerometer reduces the puncture error from 4.7 to 1.8mm. Feasibility of electromagnetic and optical tracking with the da Vinci telemanipulator was shown in vitro as well as using in-vivo model of oesophagectomy. Target registration error was 11.2mm because of soft-tissue deformation.SummaryIntraoperative navigation is helpful during percutaneous puncture collecting system and

biopsy of renal tumour using various tracking techniques. Early clinical studies demonstrate advantages of marker-based navigation PF-03084014 cell line during this website laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and partial nephrectomy. Combination of different tracking techniques may further improve this interesting addition to video-assisted surgery.”
“BACKGROUND: Ozonation of complex industrial park wastewater was carried out in a semi-batch reactor. The variation of wastewater characteristics was evaluated based on

the analysis of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentration, BOD(5)/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio, COD fractionation, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) molecular size distribution before and after ozonation.

RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that low efficiency of COD removal with increasing tendency

of BOD(5) concentration generally appeared after ozonation. Also, the AZD6244 price BOD(5)/COD ratio increased from an initial of 0.27 to a maximum of 0.38. The COD fractionation tests revealed that most of the inert soluble COD was transformed to biodegradable soluble COD at 30 min of reaction time. Additionally, the DOC molecular size distribution tests showed that the fraction larger than 500 kDa was significantly decreased and the fraction smaller than 2 kDa was increased when the reaction time was prolonged to 240 min.

CONCLUSION: This study verified that partial oxidation of the complex industrial park wastewater by ozonation could enhance wastewater biodegradability. The biodegradability enhancement was primarily because the inert soluble COD fraction was converted to the biodegradable soluble COD and the high molecular weight fraction of DOC was shifted toward the low molecular weight fraction. (C) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry”
“OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association between long-term caffeine intake and risk of urinary incontinence (UI) progression over 2 years among women with moderate UI.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 21,564 women with moderate UI enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Incontinence progression was identified from questionnaires during 2 years of follow-up.

4% With such a cut-off, the timing of acidemia can be calculated

4%. With such a cut-off, the timing of acidemia can be calculated as 25 min for a fetal heart rate (FHR) of 80 bpm, 13 min for a FHR of 70 bpm, 8 min for a FHR of 60 bpm, 6 min for a FHR of 50 bpm and 5 min for a FHR of 40 bpm.

Conclusion: The bradycardia area in the second stage of labor significantly correlates with

an accurate timing of fetal acidemia. Regardless of the cause of the bradycardia, the time for intervention is often short, meaning that any available intervention SU5416 manufacturer may be ineffective in preventing acidemia or even injury.”
“Purpose of review

The hyper-IgD and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is one of the classical monogenetic hereditary autoinflammatory disorders, and together with the more severe mevalonic aciduria it is

also known as ‘mevalonate kinase deficiency’ (MKD). In this study, we will give an overview of the primary research on mevalonate kinase deficiency published in the past 2 years.

Recent findings

Besides an inventory of a number of recent case reports, literature review shows there are several interesting developments in the basic field of research. First, a group of articles was recently published on chemically instead of genetically induced MKD mouse and cell models, investigating the effects of several isoprenoid pathway intermediates. LEE011 in vitro Second, another study confirms a role for small GTPases and their isoprenylation in the inflammatory response in mevalonate kinase deficiency. Lastly, there are now, finally,

modest new indications about the role of IgD.

Summary

Both pathophysiological studies and clinical observations in the last 2 years have supported the central role of IL-1 in HIDS. There are some intriguing results and hypotheses about the link between isoprenoid metabolism and the IL-1 pathway AZD3965 clinical trial through geranylgeranylation that deserve to be further examined.”
“The Japonica cultivar ‘Janganbyeo’ was cultivated and about half of paddy field was totally lodged at 30 days after heading. Both lodged paddy, and unlodged paddy were harvested at intervals. The lodged paddy and brown rice did not show ally signs of viviparity until the 4(th) day of lodging. The activities of alpha-amylase, diastase, and lipase of lodged paddy and brown rice began to increase on the 2(nd) day of lodging and then increased slowly afterwards. The activities of protease and phylase of lodged paddy and brown rice reached the maximum values on the 2(nd) day and then decreased until the final day of lodging. In contrast, unlodged paddy and brown rice showed relatively small increase in viviparity and in activities of alpha-amylase, diastase, protease, lipase, and phytase. Especially, activities of diastase and lipase were observed even in unlodged paddy and brown rice.”
“Objective: To examine obstetric outcomes for adolescents among the major US racial/ethnic groups.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of singleton births to nulliparous women aged 12 to 19 years from 1988 to 2008.


“The changes in the microstructure of tomato paste suspens


“The changes in the microstructure of tomato paste suspensions have been investigated during homogenisation and subsequent shearing in suspensions with similar composition, at three tomato paste concentrations 10, 30 and 40%. The suspensions were characterised by the particle size distribution

(PSD), volume fraction (empty set), and dynamic theological properties (G`, G ”). All suspensions exhibit a solid-like behaviour with G`> G ”. Micrographs indicate that the process of homogenisation creates a smooth network of finer particles, that is easily disrupted by prolonged shearing, giving rise to the formation of densely packed flocs that become clearly oriented in the direction of the shearing. At high concentrations, these changes in the microstructure on homogenisation and subsequent shearing were better check details reflected by differences in empty set than in G`. The rheological behaviour of the suspensions exhibits a power-law dependence on empty set, over a large range of PSD and for 0.05 < empty set < 0.55. Finally, an experimental equation, including empty set and the size of the coarse particles in the surface-weighted PSD, is found to accurately estimate G` (R(2)> 99.3%, p < 0.001). (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All selleckchem rights reserved.”
“In this article, it is demonstrated that simultaneously strengthened

and toughened nanocomposites based on polypropylene/EPDM thermoplastic elastomer (TPO) matrix can be achieved through enhanced adhesion between MWNTs and polymer matrix by using PP grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). To improve the interface between filler MLN8237 nmr and matrix, MWNTs were treated with acid, or covalently linked to polypropylene. The chemical and morphological transformation of the modified MWNTs, and its effect on the morphology and mechanical properties of the composites are investigated. The strengthening and toughening mechanism is discussed regarding the structural property relationship. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2104-2112,

2011″
“Transcription is the first step connecting genetic information with an organism’s phenotype. While expression of annotated genes in the human brain has been characterized extensively, our knowledge about the scope and the conservation of transcripts located outside of the known genes’ boundaries is limited. Here, we use high-throughput transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to characterize the total non-ribosomal transcriptome of human, chimpanzee, and rhesus macaque brain. In all species, only 20-28% of non-ribosomal transcripts correspond to annotated exons and 20-23% to introns. By contrast, transcripts originating within intronic and intergenic repetitive sequences constitute 40-48% of the total brain transcriptome. Notably, some repeat families show elevated transcription. In non-repetitive intergenic regions, we identify and characterize 1,093 distinct regions highly expressed in the human brain.

The thin Al2O3 layer worked as a tunnel switch to improve the fer

The thin Al2O3 layer worked as a tunnel switch to improve the ferroelectric performance of the BFMO films. C188-9 nmr The BFMO thin film and BiFeO3 film contains a high density of charged defects, such as oxygen vacancies, Bi vacancies, and Fe2+ ions reduced from Fe3+, which induce a large leakage current and cause instability of ferroelectric polarization in one direction. An asymmetric hysteresis

loop and severe depolarization was observed in the BFMO capacitor due to the local field induced by the defect complexes that are mainly formed near the Pt/BFMO interface from interactions between charged defects. Depositing a thin Al2O3 tunnel switch layer reduced these detrimental phenomena, which could be attributed

to a decrease in the amount of oxygen vacancies as well as the suppression of polarization back-switching after the polarization switching and during non-switching. The defects in the BFMO films also caused find protocol domain wall pinning during the relaxation time so the switching speed decreased with increasing relaxation time. Adopting an Al2O3 tunnel switch layer also improved this problem.(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3647777]“
“More than 100 years ago, Alois Alzheimer first described the clinical and pathological features of an unusual brain disease during the meeting of the Society of Southwest German Psychiatrists in Tubingen: the patient,

Auguste Deter, suffered memory loss, disorientation, hallucinations and delusions and died at the age of 55. In 1910, Emil Kraepelin named the condition with the eponym of “”Alzheimer’s disease”" (AD) that is, now, the most common neurodegenerative disease with more than 25 million cases worldwide and a major medical problem nearing catastrophic levels. The present article discusses Alzheimer’s work in the context of his Captisol in vitro life and time.”
“The purposes of this report are to 1) summarize the epidemiologic evidence supporting an association between intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) exposure and BP-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ), 2) identify measurable risk factors associated with BRONJ, and 3) assess the risk of BRONJ for patients receiving intravenous BPs to manage osteoporosis. The results of this review suggest a compelling, circumstantial association between intravenous BP exposure and BRONJ. The factors consistently associated with an increased risk of BRONJ included intravenous BP exposure in the setting of malignancy and dentoalveolar procedures. Finally, intravenous BP therapy for osteoporosis does not measurably increase the risk of BRONJ among postmenopausal women.