9 THz) by time-domain spectroscopy From the frequency

de

9 THz) by time-domain spectroscopy. From the frequency

dependence of the complex scattering parameters, we show the possibility to close the gap between the left-and right-handed dispersion branches by increasing the number of layers from 3 to 5. Cell Cycle inhibitor Such a demonstration paves the way of balance composite propagation characteristics with a gapless transition between the negative and positive values of refractive index at a frequency of 0.5 THz. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3374703]“
“Purpose: To estimate cumulative radiation exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from computed tomographic (CT) scanning of adult patients at a tertiary care academic medical center.

Materials and Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional find more review board with waiver of informed consent. The cohort comprised 31 462 patients who underwent diagnostic CT in 2007

and had undergone 190 712 CT examinations over the prior 22 years. Each patient’s cumulative CT radiation exposure was estimated by summing typical CT effective doses, and the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII methodology was used to estimate LAR on the basis of sex and age at each exposure. Billing ICD9 codes and electronic order entry information were used to stratify patients with LAR greater than 1%.

Results: Thirty-three percent of patients underwent five or more lifetime CT examinations, and 5% underwent between 22 and 132 examinations. Fifteen percent received estimated cumulative effective doses of more than 100 mSv, and 4% received between 250 and 1375 mSv. Associated LAR had mean and maximum values of 0.3% and 12% for cancer incidence and 0.2% and 6.8% YM155 for cancer mortality, respectively. CT exposures were estimated to produce 0.7% of total expected baseline cancer incidence and 1% of total cancer mortality. Seven percent of the cohort had estimated LAR greater than 1%, of which 40% had either no malignancy history or a cancer history

without evidence of residual disease.

Conclusion: Cumulative CT radiation exposure added incrementally to baseline cancer risk in the cohort. While most patients accrue low radiation-induced cancer risks, a subgroup is potentially at higher risk due to recurrent CT imaging. (c) RSNA, 2009″
“Quinapril undergoes a significant degradation in the solid state, specially in the presence of humidity, temperature and pharmaceutical excipients. Since dissolution increases the degradation, hydrolytic reactions are among the most common processes involved in drug degradation. Improving the knowledge regarding drug stability, particularly concerning the critical factors that can influence the stability of the active substance in solutions, such as the temperature, the pH and the concentration of catalytic species usually acids or bases are essential for pharmaceutical use.

Objective: Our objective is to evaluate the potential of non-line

Objective: Our objective is to evaluate the potential of non-linear optics, including multiphoton autofluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, as a non-invasive imaging modality for the real-time study of radiofrequency-tissue interaction.

Methods: Electra-optical synergy device (ELOS) was used

Selleckchem SRT1720 as the radiofrequency source in this study. The back skin of nude mouse was irradiated with radiofrequency at different passes. We evaluated the effect on skin immediately and 1 month after treatment with multiphoton microscopy.

Results: Corresponding histology was performed for comparison. We found that SHG is negatively correlated to radiofrequency passes, which means that collagen structural disruption happens immediately after thermal damage. After 1 month of collagen remodeling, SHG signals increased above baseline, indicating that collagen regeneration has occurred. Our findings may explain mechanism of nonablative skin tightening and were supported by histological examinations.

Conclusions:

Our work showed that monitoring the dermal heating status of RF and following up the detailed process of tissue reaction can be imaged and quantified with multiphoton microscopy non-invasively in vivo. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology.”
“Objective. The objective of this study was to compare postsurgical neurosensory alteration selleckchem and recovery patterns among different nerve fiber types and orthognathic surgeries by measuring current perception thresholds (CPT).

Study design. CPTs of 186 patients who underwent various orthognathic surgeries this website (Le Fort I or II, bilateral sagittal split [BSSRO] or intraoral vertico-sagittal [IVSRO] ramus osteotomy with or without genioplasty) were measured at 2000, 250, and 5 Hz, assessing 3 different nerve fiber types before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery.

Results. CPTs were highest at 3 months postsurgery and gradually returned to presurgical levels until 12 months postsurgery in most cases.

CPT at 2000 Hz showed the largest amount of increase. Le Fort I and IVSRO caused less neurosensory alteration compared with Le Fort II and BSSRO, respectively.

Conclusion. Our data provide nerve recovery patterns following various orthognathic surgeries that may be applied to evaluating the patient’s severity and recovery of nerve damage. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011;111:24-33)”
“Growth of Si, Ge, and, thus, SiGe nanowires (NWs) by catalyzed chemical vapor deposition proceeds at different process conditions, preventing easy realization of axial multijunctions interesting for device realization. In this paper, we propose a common process to obtain both Si, Ge, and alloyed NWs simply by adding HCl in the gas phase.

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics [doi:10 1063/1 3520677]“<

(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3520677]“
“Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with the development of severe liver disease, but cofactors – namely alcohol abuse – in Scotland’s HCV-positive population complicate estimation of the unique contribution

of HCV. We compared the risk of hospital admission/death for a liver-related cause in a large cohort of Glasgow’s injecting drug users (IDUs) testing HCV-positive with IDUs testing HCV negative. Data for 6566 current/former PLX3397 cell line IDUs who had been tested for anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction in Greater Glasgow health board between 1993 and 2007 were linked to the national hospitalization database and deaths registry to identify all admissions and deaths from a liver-related condition. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for recurrent events. Time at risk was censored at 2 years following an HCV test to address bias owing to unobserved seroconversion. The risk of hospitalization/death from a liver-related or an alcoholic selleck products liver-related condition following HCV testing was greater for those IDUs with no prior alcohol-related hospitalization who tested positive [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.5-6.7; 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8-13.1, respectively], compared with those who tested anti-HCV negative, but not for those IDUs with a prior alcohol admission (HR = 0.8, 95% CI:

0.4-1.5; 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.6). There was little evidence for CYT387 an increased risk of hospitalization/death for an exclusively nonalcoholic liver condition for those testing positive (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-2.7),

after adjustment for previous alcohol-related admission. Within Glasgow’s IDU population, HCV positivity is associated with an increased risk of a liver-related outcome, but this is not observed for those IDUs whose problem alcohol use already increases their risk.”
“Nonepileptic seizures (NES) provide a clinical challenge as the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. The present study compares 27 participants with confirmed NES presentations with 39 individuals with epileptic seizure (ES) presentations only, on indices of psychopathology, trauma history, dissociative propensity, and attachment style. Psychopathology and dissociation were found to be significantly elevated in the NES group compared with the ES group. No differences were found between groups in terms of trauma history and attachment style. However, trauma history did correlate significantly with psychopathology in the NES group but not in the ES group. Finally, whereas the relationship between psychological variables and seizure frequency was weak within the ES group, trauma history, a fearful attachment dimension, psychopathology, and dissociation predicted seizure frequency in the NES group. Implications for understanding and interventions with NES presentations are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.

We also examined whether possession of the apolipoprotein E (APOE

We also examined whether possession of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele could moderate the effect of PA

or CA on hippocampal structure or function. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy, cognitively intact older adults underwent baseline neuropsychological assessment, hippocampal volume measurement via manually-traced structural MRI, and task-activated fMRI. Results: After 18 months, 27 participants declined by one standard deviation or more on follow-up neuropsychological testing. Logistic regression analyses revealed that CA alone or Selleck Pevonedistat in combination with baseline hippocampal structure or functional activity did not predict the probability of cognitive decline. In contrast, PA interacted with APOE epsilon 4 status such that

engagement in PA reduced the this website risk of cognitive decline in APOE epsilon 4 carriers only. Furthermore, the benefits of PA appeared to diminish with reduced functional activity or volume in the hippocampus. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased leisure time PA is associated with reduced probability of cognitive decline in persons who are at high risk for AD. The beneficial effects of PA in this group may be related to enhancement of the functional and structural integrity of the hippocampus.”
“An experiment was conducted using 200 beef carcasses to evaluate the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without monensin and tylosin on carcass cutability and meat sensory variables. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with treatments arranged as a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (monensin and tylosin withdrawn vs. monensin and tylosin fed) factorial. Cattle (n = 3,757) were fed zilpaterol hydrochloride, a beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, for 30 d at the BLZ945 end of the finishing period and withdrawn from zilpaterol hydrochloride for the last 5 d on feed. Five carcasses (weighing between 305 and 421 kg and free of slaughter defects) were selected from each of 40 feedlot treatment pens. Strip loins from the left sides were collected

for sensory analysis and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) testing, and the rib was collected for 9th, 10th, 11th-rib dissections. A subsample of 3 carcass right sides per pen was fabricated into boneless subprimals according to Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications. Carcasses from zilpaterol-fed steers had greater (P <= 0.008) subprimal yields of shoulder clod, chuck tender, knuckle, top round, outside round, eye of the round, strip loin, top sirloin butt, bottom sirloin butt ball tip, full tenderloin, and flank steak than steers not fed zilpaterol. In addition, zilpaterol hydrochloride treatment decreased (P = 0.002) trimmable fat. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P <= 0.006) estimated carcass protein and moisture and decreased (P <= 0.

None of the patients had severe regurgitation No aortic valvulop

None of the patients had severe regurgitation. No aortic valvuloplasty was performed. The significant

risk factors for aortic regurgitation were subpulmonary stenosis (p = 0.001) and a muscular posteroinferior rim (p = 0.000). Subpulmonary stenosis was seen in 57 patients (35%), found to be mild to moderate in 42 cases (26%) and severe in 15 cases (9%). Adequacy of the stenosis band was repaired through the tricuspid valve for 57 of these patients. The definition of EVSD should identify it as a subgroup different from pVSD, and it should be closed as soon as it is identified in developing countries. Aortic regurgitation occurs rarely, and aortic valvoplasty should be performed if it exceeds GW4869 a moderate level. The subpulmonary

stenosis can be repaired through the tricuspid valve.”
“OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on the quality of life in older women as part of the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study.

METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 180 women 65 years of age or older with or without vertebral fractures. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis was administered to all subjects. Anthropometric data were obtained by physical examination, and the body mass index was calculated. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine X-ray scans were obtained to identify asymptomatic vertebral fractures using a semi-quantitative method.

RESULTS: Women with asymptomatic vertebral fractures had lower total scores [61.4(15.3) vs. 67.1(14.2), p = 0.03] and worse physical function domain scores [69.5(20.1) check details vs. 77.3(17.1), p = 0.02] for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation Selleckchem PARP inhibitor for Osteoporosis compared with women without fractures. The total score of this questionnaire was also worse in women classified as obese than in women classified as overweight or normal. High physical activity was related to a better total score for this questionnaire (p = 0.01). Likewise, lower physical function scores were

observed in women with higher body mass index values (p < 0.05) and lower physical activity levels (p < 0.05). Generalized linear models with gamma distributions and logarithmic link functions, adjusted for age, showed that lower total scores and physical function domain scores for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis were related to a high body mass index, lower physical activity, and the presence of vertebral fractures (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Vertebral fractures are associated with decreased quality of life mainly physical functioning in older community-dwelling women regardless of age, body mass index, and physical activity. Therefore, the results highlight the importance of preventing and controlling asymptomatic vertebral fractures to reduce their impact on quality of life among older women.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 42:105-118″
“Objectives: To describe r

Semin Arthritis Rheum 42:105-118″
“Objectives: To describe rates of first significant infection of rheumatoid arthritis patients who switch between anti-tumor necrosis factor (aTNF) drugs.

Methods: Subjects with rheumatoid arthritis who received only aTNF drugs were observed in an insurance claims database from January 2001 to December 2007. Nonswitchers (NS) remained on one aTNF throughout the study period (date of the first aTNF claim was the index date); switchers (S) received at least one other aTNF (claim date for the 2nd agent was the index date). Significant infections included those that required intravenous antibiotics or hospitalization. Two attributable risk periods buy KPT-8602 were used:

(1) an infection occurring <= 90 days following a claim for an aTNF (90-day) and (2) an infection occurring after the index date (ever-treated). Follow-up was censored at the first occurrence of a significant infection event, end of eligibility, or end of study period. Data were analyzed using Cox regression.

Results: In 13,752 NS and 2293 S patients, time-stratified rates declined 2- to 3-fold between the first year versus >= 2 years. Risk of significant infection was not different for either attribution model [90-day hazard ratio (HR) = 0.93, 95CI: 0.74 to 1.17, P = 0.55; ever treated HR = 0.94, 95CI: 0.78 to 1.15,

P = 0.57]. First and second year rates were similar. Predictors included age >= 50 years; history of significant or opportunistic 3-deazaneplanocin A clinical trial infection, diabetes, respiratory disease; Charlson score >= 2; or prior hospitalizations.

Conclusions: The risk of a significant infection was not different between NS and S patients. Regardless of switching status, the rate of infection was greater in the first year. This study was limited by the lack of clinical data to determine the reason for switching. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 42:119-126″
“Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder. There is a clear association between some disease-modifying drugs used to

treat RA and infection. The introduction of the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies has improved the outcome of severe Selleckchem GDC-0994 RA. The TNF-antagonism may increase susceptibility to granulomatous pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Histoplasma capsulatum.

Methods: We report the case of a 37-year-old woman with RA receiving an anti-TNF agent, who developed a rash on her back and both legs, which was finally diagnosed as tuberculoid leprosy.

Results: This is the first case of leprosy due to anti-TNF therapy reported in Europe.

Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of this and other types of atypical and serious infections that patients may suffer from when treated with anti-TNF agents. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Throughout, we focus on two basic questions First, what is the b

Throughout, we focus on two basic questions. First, what is the basic conceptual idea underlying BIBF 1120 mw the model? Second, what are the key assumptions and predictions of the model? We conclude by discussing empirical features of personalities that have not yet been addressed by formal modelling. While this paper is primarily intended to guide empiricists through current adaptive theory, thereby stimulating empirical tests of these models, we hope it also inspires theoreticians to address aspects of personalities that have received

little attention up to now.”
“The diagnosis of Q fever (Coxiella burnetii infection) relies primarily on the serological detection of specific Galardin chemical structure antibodies. Recently, PCR-based methods have been introduced in diagnostic laboratories. Unfortunately, the fastest and most reliable real-time detection method, which employs the online detection of target nucleotide sequences while the amplification process is still in progress, requires expensive devices and consumables. In this study, we present a simple method that combines the simplicity of conventional PCR with new technical and methodical enhancements, resulting in a fast, specific and easy method for the molecular detection of C. burnetii. A collection of C. burnetii

reference strains was tested with the modified conventional gel-based PCR approach applying a particluar PCR buffer (QIAGEN (R) Fast Cycling

PCR kit) and using a closed ready-to-use gel-cassette-system (FlashGel (R)) for the visualization of specific PCR products. The modified conventional PCR method reached nearly the speed of the LightCycler (R) Selleckchem VX-770 HybProbe real-time PCR assay (120 vs. 90 min) and showed equal sensitivity and specificity. The general cost per PCR run was 25% less than that for the LightCycler method. These improvements make this method suitable for small laboratories with limited resources and for deployable PCR diagnostics in field laboratories.”
“Bilateral frontal polymicrogyria is a recently recognized syndrome characterized by symmetric polymicrogyria of both frontal lobes that presents with delayed motor and language development, spastic quadriparesis, and variable mental retardation. However, the postmortem findings of this syndrome are not fully elaborated. Here we describe an autopsy case of bilateral frontal polymicrogyria in a male fetus delivered at 22 weeks gestation due to extensive chorioamnionitis. The microscopic findings included a thinned cortical plate with fair neuronal maturation. There were no signs of neuronal damage and the white matter was unremarkable.”
“We develop a conceptual framework for the understanding of animal personalities in terms of adaptive evolution. We focus on two basic questions.

Additionally, 14 specific predicted interactions in DNA topologic

Additionally, 14 specific predicted interactions in DNA topological change and protein biosynthesis GPCR Compound Library were experimentally validated. We analyzed the systems-level network features within all interactomes, verifying the presence of small-world properties and enrichment for recurring network motifs. This compendium of physical, synthetic, regulatory, and functional interaction networks has been made publicly available through an interactive web interface for investigators to utilize in

future research at http://function.princeton.edu/bioweaver/.”
“Thioacetamide (TAA) exerts hepatotoxic, neurotoxic and carcinogenic effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of TAA on lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in various rat brain regions. Male Wistar rats were divided into following groups: 1. control, saline-treated; 2. thioacetamide-treated

groups, TAA(300) (300 mg/kg), TAA(600) (600 mg/kg) and TAA(900) (900 mg/kg). Daily dose of TAA (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once (TAA(300)), twice (TAA(600)) and three times (TAA(900)) in consecutive days. Brain samples INCB018424 cost were collected 24 h after the last dose of TAA and malondialdehyde (MDA) level and catalase activity were determined in cortex, brainstem and hippocampus. MDA level was significantly increased while catalase activity was significantly lower in all brain regions in TAA(900) group in comparison with control group.

In TAA(600) MDA level was increased in the brainstem and cortex when compared to control (p<0.01). The same dose of TAA(600) mg/kg induced a significant decline in catalase activity in the brainstem and cortex and an increase in its activity in the hippocampus when compared to control (p<0.01).

In TAA(300) an increase in MDA level was

evident only in the brainstem. Catalase activity was significantly higher in the cortex and hippocampus in TAA(300) group in comparison with control (p<0.01). Based on these results, it may be concluded that various rat brain regions have different sensitivity to TAA-induced lipid peroxidation with hippocampus being less sensitive than cerebral cortex and brainstem.”
“There is increasing recognition SNS-032 that coronary microvascular dysfunction also plays an important role in coronary heart disease. Little is known about this aspect of coronary heart disease due to difficulties in studying the coronary microcirculation directly. The retina is a unique site where the microcirculation can be imaged directly, providing an opportunity to study in vivo the structure and pathology of the human circulation and the possibility of detecting changes in microvasculature relating to the development of cardiovascular disease.

These quantum effects are not negligibly small in evaluation of e

These quantum effects are not negligibly small in evaluation of enthalpy of formation, an important property of hydrogen storage. Including the temperature effect from hydrogen gas, experimental values are well reproduced. The excitation probability of inelastic neutron scattering

is also calculated using the wave functions obtained. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3642942]“
“The intestinal barrier is formed by enterocyte membranes, tight junctions, secreted mucus, and immunologic factors, such as tissue macrophages. Dysfunction of this barrier can selleck inhibitor be caused by different types of stress (e.g., physiological, pathological, psychological, pharmacological) and can lead to increased intestinal permeability. Increased permeability to endotoxin, a component of the walls of gram-negative bacteria, causes local or systemic inflammatory reactions, or both. The immune response(s) can then promote more serious conditions. Exertional heat stroke is an example of such a condition. During severe exercise-heat stress, possibly combined with other stresses, reductions in intestinal blood flow, direct thermal damage CCI-779 cost to the intestinal mucosa, or both, can cause intestinal barrier disruption and endotoxemia. The resulting inflammatory response is believed

to be involved in altered thermoregulation and multiple-organ dysfunction. Possible means for preventing or attenuating, or both, many stress-induced intestinal barrier problems include environmental, pharmaceutical, or nutritional approaches, or a combination of these.”
“The aim of the present study was to identify patterns of background factors related to the early RA patients’ conceptions

of the cause of the disease. Conceptions from a qualitative study formed the basis for the stratification selleck screening library of 785 patients from the Swedish EIRA study answering a question about their own thoughts about the cause to RA. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the associations between patients’ conceptions and relevant background factors: sex, age, civil status, educational level, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) and smoking habits. The results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A conception of family-related strain was strongly associated with being young (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.33-0.78 for age 58-70 vs. 17-46), female (OR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25-0.60 for male vs. female) and having a high level of education (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.54-3.01 for university degree vs. no degree). A conception of being exposed to climate changes was associated with being male (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.24-3.22 for male vs. female), having a low level of education (OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.18-0.58 for university degree vs. no degree) and positive Anti-CCP (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.03-2.87 for positive vs. negative Anti-CCP).

Respiratory parameters and proinflammatory markers were measured

Respiratory parameters and proinflammatory markers were measured as outcome.

Results:

There was no difference in PaO(2) between groups. PaCO(2) (P < 0.01) and ventilatory rate (P < 0.01) were higher at 1.5 h OLV and at the end point in the PVS group. Peak inflating pressure (PIP) and pulmonary resistance were higher (P < 0.05) in the control group at 1.5 h OLV. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.04) and IL-8 were less (P < 0.001) in the plasma from the PVS group, while IL-6 and IL-8 were less (P < 0.04) in the

lung tissue from ventilated lungs in the PVS group.

Conclusions:

Based on this model, PVS decreases inflammatory injury both systemically AZD8186 ic50 and in the lung tissue with no adverse

effect on oxygenation, ventilation, or lung function.”
“BACKGROUND: Enantioselective bioreduction of acetophenone to S-(-)-1-phenylethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae under non-growth conditions is inhibited by the product created. This study investigated the possibility of intensification and mathematical simulation of 1-phenylethanol production using periodic product removal carried out by membrane extraction in a hollow fiber membrane module. RESULTS: The highest reaction rate was observed at the beginning of the biotransformation. With increased product concentration in the reaction medium, the reaction rate gradually decreased by about 50% after 20 h of biotransformation. The low concentration of product maintained in the BYL719 reaction medium using membrane extraction had positive

PFTα influence on the 1-phenylethanol production with a high yield (96%) and mean reaction rate of 0.226 mg h-1g-1, 35% higher than biotransformation without product removal. The equilibrium change and membrane fouling caused by biomass were not significant. It was possible to mathematically simulate the whole course of the extractive biotransformation with good agreement with experimental data. CONCLUSION: Bioreductive production of 1-phenylethanol is more effective when using periodic membrane extraction of the product from the fermentation broth, which gives higher reaction rate, higher yield and simpler downstream process than biotransformation without product removal. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: The etiology of jaundice in otherwise healthy breastfed newborns that can present as early-onset exaggerated physiologic jaundice, or late breast milk jaundice (BMJ), is not yet entirely understood. This study tested the hypothesis that molecular marker for Gilbert’s syndrome (GS), UGT1A1 TATA-box polymorphism, is associated with this disorders.

Methods: We have investigated the UGT1A1 polymorphism frequency and its relation to severity of hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice duration among 220 exclusively breastfed term newborns; 57 of them with non-physiologic hyperbilirubinemia (NH), and 163 with BMJ, and in 187 healthy controls.