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All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Bacteriophages have critically important roles in genome diversification and the evolution of virulence and host adaptation of enteric bacteria. Genes encoding Shiga toxins (Stx) 1 and 2 are found on lambdoid phages in Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, while similar Gifsy and Fels phages encode a number of virulence factors in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition to carrying genes encoding virulence factors, integrated prophage can affect gene expression of the host bacterium. The recent demonstration of three distinct bacteriophages integrated into the genome of Campylobacter jejuni chicken isolate RM1221 suggested that such phages may be common and important for the biology of C. jejuni. At least one of these three C. jejuni integrated elements (CJIEs)  was a Mu-like phage inducible with mitomycin C designated CJIE1 (or Campylobacter Mu-like phage 1, CMLP1).