This article reviews the background and reemergence of WNF in Israel; the recent
epidemiology of WNF among Israelis; and the disease-control strategies being used to combat the disease. Methods: Employing the comprehensive base of case data that are reported to the Ministry of Health, an epidemiological record was constructed that details the incidence and distribution of WNF cases in Israel in recent years. Results: After decades of small, intermittent outbreaks, nearly 1400 cases of WNF were reported in Israel between 2000 and 2012. Incidence was consistently highest in the coastal cities, among elderly patients, and in the late summer months and early autumn. A broad range of control measures to prevent human infection has been implemented, and attention has been given to issues such as the protection of the national blood bank and the occurrence of long-term sequelae. Conclusions: The reemergence of WNF in Birinapant price Israel is likely the result of a combination of factors including past immunity to the virus among the human population, a marked increase in awareness of WNF among physicians, and more frequent requests for the laboratory testing of suspected cases. In the absence of effective vaccine to protect humans from WNF, the best disease-control strategies include intensive vector-control measures,
the continued development of techniques to forecast outbreaks, and effective public education programs Sapanisertib inhibitor that are targeted toward the high-risk elderly population. (C) 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The generalized entropy theory is applied to assess the joint influence of the microscopic cohesive energy and chain stiffness on glass formation in: polymer melts using a minimal model containing a single bending energy and a single (monomer averaged) nearest neighbor van der Waals energy.
JNK inhibitor The analysis focuses on the combined impact of the microscopic cohesive energy and chain stiffness on the magnitudes of the isobaric fragility parameter m(p) and the glass transition temperature T-g. The computations imply that polymers with rigid structures and weak nearest neighbor interactions are the most fragile, while T-g becomes larger when the chains are stiffer and/or nearest neighbor interactions are stronger. Two simple fitting formulas summarize the computations describing the dependence of M-p and T-g on the microscopic cohesive and bending energies. The consideration of the combined influence of the microscopic cohesive and bending energies leads to the identification of some important design concepts, such as iso-fragility and iso-T-g lines, where, for instance, iso-fragility lines are contours with constant mp but variable T-g. Several thermodynamic properties are found to remain invariant along the iso-fragility lines, while no special characteristics are detected along the iso-T-g lines.