The images

were taken in tapping mode from Innova Scannin

The images

were taken in tapping mode from Innova Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) system. The average and root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be 2.66 and 3.28 nm, respectively. However, the TiN surface was oxidized and it became TiO x N y . The surface of TiN Be was also observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM, JEOL 2100 F, JEOL Ltd., Akishima-shi, Japan) with energy of 200 keV, as shown in Figure 3b. The thickness of TiO x N y layer was approximately BAY 80-6946 3.5 nm. During electrical measurement, the bias was applied on the Cu TE while the BE was grounded. All the electrical measurements were carried out by Agilent 4156C semiconductor parameter analyzer (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA). Figure 2 Schematic view of via-hole device and OM image. (a) Schematic

view of the Cu pillar formation and memory characteristics of an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure. (b) Optical image (OM) of a typical 4 × 4 μm2 device. The ‘V4.0’ as indicated on OM image is via size of 4 × 4 μm2. Figure 3 AFM and HRTEM images for TiN layer. (a) Atomic force microscope (AFM) image shows surface roughness of TiN layer with a scan area of 1× 1 μm2. (b)The TiN surface is oxidized and is observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image. Results and discussion Figure 4a shows current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of randomly measured 100 pristine devices in an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure. The sweeping voltages (0 → +5 → 0 → −1 → 0 V)

applied on the TE is selleck compound shown by arrows 1 to 4. A high current compliance of 70 mA is reached. Initial GNAT2 resistance state (IRS) shows high because of insulating properties of the Al2O3 film. After applying positive formation voltage (V form) on the TE, the device switches from IRS to low-resistance state (LRS). If current compliance is higher than 75 mA, then some devices are burned out because of joule heating. That is why the current compliance of 70 mA was used to protect the device. These devices do not show reset operation even a reset voltage of −1 V. This suggests that the strong Cu filament or pillar forms in the Al2O3 film, which we are looking at the metal interconnection for 3D memory stack. Figure 4b represents the narrow distribution of Vform for the 100 device-to-devices. The read voltage was 1 V. The mean value (σ m) and standard deviation (σ s) of forming voltages are +4.25 V and 0.3491. This implies that small external voltage (<5 V) is needed to form Cu pillar. Almost all devices have the formation of Cu pillar, which suggests the 100% yield. To analyze the device-to-device uniformity, both currents of IRS and LRS were read (V read) at a voltage of +1 V (Figure 4c). The σ m values of currents at IRS and LRS are found to be 25.9 pA and 49.96 mA, whereas the standard deviation (σ s) are 172.19 and 9.33, respectively. At V read of +2 V, the current through Cu pillar is 70 mA.

CA Cancer

CA Cancer selleck J Clin 2005, 55: 242–258.CrossRefPubMed 23. O’Sullivan B, Shah J: New TNM staging criteria for head and neck tumors. Semin Surg Oncol 2003, 21: 30–42.CrossRefPubMed 24. Liao WT, Wang X, Xu LH, Kong QL, Yu CP, Li MZ, Shi L, Zeng MS, Song LB: Centromere protein H is a novel prognostic marker for human nonsmall cell lung cancer progression and overall patient survival. Cancer 2009, 115: 1507–1017.CrossRefPubMed

25. Jane C, Nerurkar AV, Shirsat NV, Deshpande RB, Amrapurkar AD, Karjodkar FR: Increased survivin expression in high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma: a study in Indian tobacco chewers. J Oral Pathol Med 2006, 35: 595–601.CrossRefPubMed 26. Kops GJ, Weaver BA, Cleveland DW: On the road to cancer: aneuploidy and the mitotic checkpoint. Nat Rev Cancer 2005, 5: 773–785.CrossRefPubMed 27. de la Guardia C, Casiano CA, Trinidad-Pinedo J, Baez A: CENP-F gene amplification and overexpression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Head Neck 2001, 23: 104–112.CrossRefPubMed 28. Clark GM, Allred DC, Hilsenbeck SG, Chamness GC, Osborne CK, Jones D, Lee WH: Mitosin (a new proliferation marker) correlates with clinical outcome in node-negative breast cancer. Cancer Res 1997, 57: 5505–5508.PubMed 29. Carvalho A,

Carmena M, Sambade C, Earnshaw WC, Wheatley SP: Survivin is required for stable checkpoint activation in taxol-treated HeLa cells. J Cell Sci 2003, 116: 2987–2998.CrossRefPubMed 30. Lens SM, Vader G, Medema RH: The case for Survivin as mitotic regulator. Curr Opin Cell Biol 2006, 18: 616–622.CrossRefPubMed 31. Altieri DC: Survivin, versatile modulation of cell division and apoptosis in cancer. Oncogene 2003, 22: 8581–8589.CrossRefPubMed 32. Li F, Ambrosini G, Chu EY, Plescia J, Tognin S, Marchisio PC, Altieri DC: Control of apoptosis and mitotic spindle checkpoint by survivin. Nature 1998, 396: 580–584.CrossRefPubMed 33. Lo Muzio L, Farina A, Rubini C, Pezzetti F, Stabellini G, Laino G, Santarelli A, Pannone G, Bufo P, de Lillo A, Carinci F: Survivin as prognostic factor in

squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Cancer Lett 2005, 225: 27–33.CrossRefPubMed 34. Lo Muzio L, Pannone G, Leonardi R, Staibano S, Mignogna MD, De Rosa G, Kudo Y, Takata T, Altieri DC: Survivin, a potential early predictor of tumor progression in the oral mucosa. J Dent Res 2003, 82: 923–928.CrossRefPubMed Methane monooxygenase Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions WL carried out cell cultures, establishment of stable cell lines, proliferation functional assays, and preparation of manuscript. CY and DW participated in RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, as well as data analysis. LX and GW have been involved in western blot analysis and data interpretation. LZ participated in critical revision of the manuscript. MZ participated in the study design and coordination and helped to revise the manuscript.

sp URa15—Hochtor; Trebouxia sp URa8—abernas;

T sp URa

sp. URa15—Hochtor; Trebouxia sp. URa8—abernas;

T. sp. URa12—Gynge Alvar; T. sp. URa13—Hochtor). Table 4 Overview of chlorobiont occurrence in the four SCIN habitats   Genus Tabernas/Spain Hochtor/Austria Ruine Homburg/ Germany Gynge/Sweden Clades/ species Asterochloris sp. – 2 3 2 Chloroidium saccharophilum – 1 – – Trebouxia sp. 4 5 5 5 Other EGMA – 4 7 2 Other EGMA other eukaryotic green micro algae The key lichen P. decipiens occurred not only at all SCIN habitats but also in all additional soil crust specimens from other high Alpine areas. In most cases each individual lichen specimen contained one or more photobionts from every clade together with other eukaryotic green micro algae (EGMA; see Online Resource 1). The species specificity of the mycobiont towards its photobiont was quite low for P. decipiens. In contrast, Fulgensia bracteata ssp. deformis (which has so far only been found in samples from Hochtor) only occurred with T. sp. URa4 and A. sp. URa15 (the latter until now only known from this area, Figs. 2, 3). Peltigera rufescens, known to have a cyanobacterium as its primary photobiont (O’Brien et al. 2005), was also found to be associated with chlorobionts (Henskens et al. 2012). Specimens of P. rufescens from Ruine Homburg were associated with T. sp. URa6 and A. sp. URa16, although other

chlorobionts were available at the site; at Hochtor P. rufescens was found with T. impressa (see Online Resource 1, Figs. 2, 3). Discussion This evaluation of European lichen-dominated soil crusts from four geographically and climatically diverse sites revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of photobionts Selleck NVP-BGJ398 in association with the dominant lichen P. decipiens. Until now, only the genus Asterochloris has been described as the photobiont of P. decipiens (Schaper and Ott 2003), but we detected 12 different groups of the genus Trebouxia Thymidylate synthase as well as other eukaryotic green micro algae like C. saccharophilum. Several of these micro algae are already known to exist as lichen photobionts, such as T. impressa, T. asymmetrica or the, as yet undescribed, Trebouxia sp. URa2, URa4, URa6.

The latter three species have also been identified as photobionts from crustose lichens (Ruprecht et al. 2012). Other Trebouxia species that are known as free-living algae (e.g. T. arboricola; Ettl and Gärtner 1995) were included in the analysis but not found in the soil-crust samples. P. decipiens at Hochtor showed a shared use of the available photobionts with other lichen species that were present (see Online Resource 1) with each species having a different level of specificity towards to its photobiont. We can conclude for P. decipiens that this lichen is not limited to a single species or even genus of photobiont but instead associates with a broad range of apparently locally available algae. The low specificity of P.

Incisional hernioplasty using PDC grafts was found to be a safe a

Incisional hernioplasty using PDC grafts was found to be a safe and efficient approach to difficult cases complicated by potential contamination [82]. A recent literature review by Coccolini et al. covered the use of biological meshes for abdominal reconstruction in emergency and elective setting in transplanted patients, and reported a complication rate of 9.4% [85]. By incorporating biological mesh, surgeons hope to provide a collagen-based extracellular matrix scaffold by which host fibroblasts can selleck chemical induce angiogenesis and deposit new collagen. The non-synthetic material of biological mesh makes it less

susceptible to infection, and several biological grafts are available in the current market. Their classification is based on the species of origin (allogenic or xenogenic), the type of collagen matrix utilized (dermis, pericardium, or intestinal submucosa), the decellularization process, the presence or absence of cross-linkage, temperature-related storage requirements, and the use of rehydration [86]. On the basis of either the presence or not of the cross-linking,

biological prosthesis are divided into two subgroups: the partially remodeling (cross-linked) BGB324 and the completely remodeling ones (not cross-linked). Thanks to the presence of additional linkages the partially remodeling ones resist better and for a longer period to mechanical stress [66]. Coccolini et al. recently published the results of

the first 193 patients of the Italian Register of Biological Prosthesis (IRBP) [87]. This prospective multi-centre study, suggests the usefulness, versatility and ease of using biological prosthesis in many different situations, including clean or contaminated surgical fields. Despite the lack of a cohesive body of evidence, published studies on biological mesh suggest Rho that cross-linked mesh prosthetics have the lowest failure rate in potentially contaminated and outright infected fields. This trend should be investigated further by means of large, prospective, randomized studies [89]. Recently a critical review of biologic mesh use in ventral hernia repairs under contaminated field was published. All literature reviews found in medline database supported biologic mesh use, especially in the setting of contaminated fields, but the primary literature included in these reviews consisted entirely of case series and case reports with low levels of evidence [90]. To better guide surgeons, prospective, randomized trials should be undertaken to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes associated with biological meshes under the various surgical wound classifications [91].

The expression of DLC1 was significantly associated with advanced

The expression of DLC1 was significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage, ascites, and positive lymph node metastasis, which suggested that DLC1 might be involved in the invasion and metastasis of ovarian

cancer. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) belongs to the serine protease inhibitor superfamily, previous studies about PAI-1 mainly focused on the inhibition of fibrinolysis [7, 13, 28, 29]. Recently, it has been found that PAI-1 is involved in the pathophysiological process about degradation of extracellular matrix, cell migration, metastasis and various reactions of cellular signal transduction [8, 30, 31]. In a retrospective study, a strong association between elevated levels of PAI-1 and aggressive disease recurrence has been found [32]. Elevated expression of PAI-1 protein was associated with increased risk of distant metastasis in renal cancer [33, 34]. High PAI-1 DNA Damage inhibitor expression levels were associated with malignancy and PAI-1 is a strong predictor of local, as well as distant metastasis [35]. The

positive rates of PAI-1 was significantly higher in epithelial ovarian cancer than in benign ovarian tumor which was detected by immunohistochemistry, and PAI-1 was an independent factor for overall survival [36]. PAI-1 was significantly overexpressed in the tumor epithelium of ovarian cancer in comparison to the ovarian epithelium of benign ovarian tumor and normal ovary, which was detected by immunohistochemistry and ELISA [37]. These studies suggested that PAI-1 might play an important role in the invasion and metastasis

of solid tumors. In this study, western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed high PAI-1 protein levels in ovarian carcinoma tissues, which was significantly higher than that in normal Rolziracetam ovarian tissues. We also found that the expression of PAI-1 protein were significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage, poor histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis, suggesting that PAI-1 was implicated in the invasion and metastasis of ovarian cancer. However, the interaction mechanisms of DLC1 and PAI-1 that involve in the invasion and metastasis in tumor cells had not been well studied. Recently, in normal prostate epithelial cells DLC1 modulates the expression of PAI-1, which is a negative regulator for cell migration, in a GAP domain and EGFR-MEK-dependent manner was demonstrated [15]. While, independent of PAI-1, the interaction of DLC1 with tensin members positively regulates cell migration. In our study, the expression of DLC1 and PAI-1 in ovarian carcinoma tissues showed an obvious negative correlation, which indicated DLC1 and PAI-1 might be closely related to the tumorigenesis of ovarian carcinoma, and linked in the progress of tumor invasion and metastasis.

None of the physical work demands had a significant contribution

None of the physical work demands had a significant contribution in the multivariate model with ORs varying from 1.01 to 1.03. Table 3 Univariate and multivariate associations of individual characteristics and work-related factors with productivity loss among 10,542 workers   Univariate model Multivariate model Variable OR 95% CI OR 95% CI Age category  18–39 years (Ref) 1.00   1.00    40–49 years 0.83* 0.76–0.91 0.83* 0.75–0.91  50–68 years 0.81* 0.74–0.89 0.82* 0.74–0.90  Female worker 0.91* 0.85–0.99 0.87* MCC950 clinical trial 0.81–0.95 Psychosocial work demands  Lack of job

control 1.38* 1.28–1.50 1.32* 1.22–1.43  Poor skill discretion 1.28* 1.18–1.40 1.20* 1.10–1.32  High work demand 1.30* 1.20–1.40 1.28* 1.18–1.39 Physical work demands  Manual materials handling 1.11 0.95–1.30 –    Awkward back postures 1.13* 1.01–1.26 –    Static working postures 1.09* 1.01–1.18 –    Repetitive movements 1.09* 1.01–1.17 –    Bending or twisting upper body 0.94 0.87–1.02 –   * p < 0.05 Table 4 shows the joint effects of psychosocial

work factors and work ability on productivity loss at work. For all three psychosocial factors and work ability, the joined effect was strongly associated with productivity loss at work than the single effects of both variables. The RERI for job control was 0.63 (0.11–1.16), for skill discretion 0.24 (−0.31–0.79), and for work demand −0.07 (−0.65–0.51). As zero was outside the confidence interval for lack of job control, see more PD184352 (CI-1040) the interaction between decreased work ability and lack of job control was statistically significant. In other words, we found a statistically significant additive interaction between lack of job control and decreased work ability for the association with productivity loss. RERI can then be interpreted as the proportion of productivity loss at work among those workers with decreased work ability and lack of job control that is attributable to their interaction. Table 4 Interaction between work ability and work-related factors

in the association with productivity loss at work among 10,542 workers   OR 95% CI RERI 95% CI Model 1: WAI and job control  Good WAI and high job control 1.00   0.63* 0.11–1.16  Good WAI and lack of job control 1.23* 1.13–1.34  Decreased WAI and high job control 2.25* 1.87–2.70  Decreased WAI and lack of job control 3.11* 2.75–3.52 Model 2: WAI and skill discretion  Good WAI and high skill discretion 1.00   0.24 −0.31 to 0.79  Good WAI and poor skill discretion 1.18* 1.07–1.30  Decreased WAI and high skill discretion 2.51* 2.02–3.14  Decreased WAI and poor skill discretion 2.93* 2.58–3.34 Model 3: WAI and work demand  Good WAI and low work demand 1.00   −0.07 −0.65 to 0.51  Good WAI and high work demand 1.22* 1.12–1.34  Decreased WAI and low work demand 2.73* 2.29–3.26  Decreased WAI and high work demand 2.89* 2.55–3.

5–7 5 × 5 5–6 5 μm), but it differs in having tough to hard basid

5–7.5 × 5.5–6.5 μm), but it differs in having tough to hard basidiocarps, white to isabelline pore surface

and rarely branched skeletal hyphal (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1994). Perenniporia tenuis (Schwein.) Ryvarden may be confused with P. aridula by sharing resupinate basidiocarps with cream to buff-yellow pore surface; however, P. tenuis is distinguished from P. aridula by larger pores (3–5 per mm), subparallel tramal hyphae, and ellipsoid and smaller basidiospores (5.5–6.5 × 4.5–5 μm, Dai et al. 2002). Phylogenetically, Perenniporia tephropora (Mont.) Ryvarden was found to be close to P. aridula in the ITS + nLSU tree (Fig. 7); however, it has clay, grey to pale umber pore surface, and smaller basidiospores (4.2–5.2 × 3.2–4.2 μm), and its skeletal hyphae become black in KOH (Dai et al. 2002). Perenniporia bannaensis B.K. Cui & C.L. Zhao, sp. nov. (Figs. 3 and 4) Fig. 3 A basidiocarp of Perenniporia

bannaensis (Cui 8560) Fig. 4 Microscopic structures of Perenniporia selleck chemicals bannaensis (from holotype). a Basidiospores; b Basidia and basidioles; c Cystidioles; d Hyphae from trama; e Hyphae from subiculum MycoBank: MB 800240 Type China. Yunnan Province, Xi-Shuang-Banna, Mengla County, Wangtianshu Nature Reserve, on fallen angiosperm trunk, 2 November 2009 Cui 8560 (holotype in BJFC). Etymology Bannaensis (Lat.): referring to the locality (Banna) of the type specimen. Fruiting body Basidiocarps annual, resupinate, adnate, corky, without odor or taste when fresh, becoming hard corky upon drying, up to 10 cm long, 6.5 cm wide, 2 mm thick at centre. Pore surface cream cAMP to buff when fresh, becoming buff-yellow to pinkish buff upon drying; pores round to angular, 6–8 per mm; dissepiments thin, entire to distinctly lacerate. Sterile margin thin, cream-buff, up to 2 mm wide. Subiculum buff-yellow, thin, up to 0.3 mm thick. Tubes concolorous with

pore surface, corky, up to 1.7 mm long. Hyphal structure Hyphal system dimitic; generative hyphae with clamp connections; skeletal hyphae strongly dextrinoid, CB+; tissues unchanged in KOH. Subiculum Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, usually unbranched, 2.5–3.9 μm in diam; skeletal hyphae dominant, hyaline, thick-walled with a wide lumen, unbranched, interwoven, 2–3.7 μm in diam. Tubes Generative hyphae infrequent, hyaline, thin-walled, unbranched, 1.9–3.3 μm in diam; skeletal hyphae dominant, hyaline, thick-walled with a wide lumen, usually unbranched, interwoven, 2–3.4 μm. Cystidia absent, fusoid cystidioles present, hyaline, thin-walled, 15.5–21 × 5–6.5 μm; basidia barrel-shaped, with four sterigmata and a basal clamp connection, 11.5–15 × 5.9–8.2 μm; basidioles dominant, in shape similar to basidia, but slightly smaller. Spores Basidiospores ellipsoid, hyaline, distinctly thick-walled, smooth, strongly dextrinoid, CB+, (5–)5.2–6(–6.4) × (3.9–)4–4.6(–4.8) μm, L = 5.45 μm, W = 4.22 μm, Q = 1.27–1.32 (n = 120/4).

However, this expression is even higher in strains with the chvI

However, this expression is even higher in strains with the chvI null mutation. Iron is an important micronutrient found in many cofactors required for cytochrome and nitrogenase activity. Its acquisition however is difficult for two main reasons. First, it is poorly soluble at pH 7, and secondly, a high concentration of iron can cause the generation of hydroxy radicals. Bacteria produce siderophores to scavenge

iron and therefore control iron availability. A tight control over the production of siderophore is thus important. The lack or the overproduction of rhizobactin 1021 by S. meliloti impairs the symbiotic relationship with alfalfa [29]. Mutation of rirA derepresses rhizobactin production and as a result causes a growth defect of the strain relative ZD1839 to the presence of iron [33]. The reduced viability of the rirA mutant due to oxidative stress suggested that perhaps this strain would also be affected in its symbiotic properties but it was not the case [33]. This study suggested that in planta another unknown regulatory system might control the production of rhizobactin. Whether ExoS/ChvI might be the system responsible awaits further investigation. Another important finding is the confirmation that ChvI is involved in activation of the expression of SMb21189, SMb21190, and msbA2. These genes have only been described recently in the literature

although msbA2 in particular may play an important but incompletely defined role in symbiosis [34, 35], and the operon has already been shown to be subject to ChvI

regulation [17]. SMb21189 selleck inhibitor and SMb21190 encode glycosyltransferases and msbA2 is part of an ABC-transporter family involved in macromolecule export. The above mentioned recent studies proposed that the operon including SMb21188, a putative acyltransferase, is involved in the production and export of an unknown polysaccharide which uses intermediates from the succinoglycan production pathway. The regulation of this operon by ExoS/ChvI is therefore the closest link to the succinoglycan-deficient phenotype of exoS and chvI mutant strains. Although this ChvI-regulated operon is not required for succinoglycan production it seems to be functionally related to succinoglycan production. The third operon that we confirmed to be differentially regulated by ChvI encodes proteins putatively involved in fatty acid β-oxidation. SMc00262 putatively produces a 3-ketoacyl-CoA and SMc00261, a fatty-acid-CoA ligase. These genes are also followed by SMc00260 coding for a putative short-chain dehydrogenase and SMc00259 coding for a hypothetical protein. Upstream of these genes lay genes for a transcriptional regulator of the IclR family (SMc00263) and another short-chain dehydrogenase (SMc00264). Our earlier studies failed to demonstrate a phenotype for SMc00260 and SMc00264 mutants [36].

PubMed 11 Wongwiwatthananukit S: Pole of pharmacists in smoking

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H, Dirican Pevonedistat cell line M, Sarandol E, Kucukoglu S: Exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle performance in healthy women: Role of vitamin E supplementation and endogenous oestradiol. Eur J Appl Physiol 2001, 84:141–147.CrossRefPubMed 15. Buczynski A, Kedziora J, Tkaczewski W, Wachowicz B: Effect of submaximal physical exercise on antioxidative protection of human blood platelets. Int Sport Med 1991, 12:52–54.CrossRef 16. Elosua R, Molina L, Fito M, Arquer A, Sanchex-Quesada J, Covas MI: Response of oxidative stress biomarkers to a 16-week aerobic physical activity program, and to acute physical activity in healthy young men and women. Atherosclerosis 2003, 167:327–334.CrossRefPubMed 17. Fatouros IG, Jamuratas AZ, Villiotou V, Pouliopoulou S, Fotinakis P, Taxildarisl K: Oxidative stress responses in older men during endurance training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004, 36:2065–2072.CrossRefPubMed

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Given that CtrA is a global regulatory protein for both essential

Given that CtrA is a global regulatory protein for both essential (e.g. cell division) and non-essential (e.g. polar development) genes, and that the drastic CtrA reduction in YB3558 leads to polar developmental defects but the strain is still viable, we hypothesized that transcription of

CtrA-regulated genes essential for cell survival will be less affected by CtrA reduction in YB3558 than those that are essential for less important cellular functions. Thus we investigated the transcription level of several CtrA-regulated genes in CB15 and YB3558. Plasmids bearing transcriptional lacZ fusions were introduced into both wild type and YB3558 strains. The promoters for the reporter constructs were ctrA (pctrA290, [9]), ctrA P1 (pctrA-P1, [9]) ctrA P2 (pctrA-P2, [9]), ftsZ (plac290/HB2.0BP, [18]), ftsQA (pMSP8LC, [19]), ccrM (pCS148, [20]), fliQ (pWZ162, [21]) and pilA (pJS70, see more [22]) find more as well as lacZ under the control of a xylose

inducible promoter to serve as a negative control (pCS225, [23]). Exponential phase cultures were assayed for β-galactosidase activity (Figure 7). Total transcriptional activity from the ctrA promoter was unaffected, though there was a reduction of activity from the weak P1 promoter, but not the stronger P2. Activity from these promoters is dependent upon many factors, one of them being CtrA protein abundance. It is possible that even though CtrA abundance in YB3558 is severely reduced, it is more than enough to activate the P2 promoter. Figure 7 Expression of CtrA-dependent promoters in wild-type and YB3558 strains. β-galactosidase assays were performed on exponentially growing cultures as described in the Methods. CtrA-dependent promoters of essential cell process genes show little-to-no change between wild-type and YB3558, while the pilA promoter shows a drastic difference in expression between the strains. ftsZ

and ftsQA promoters Beta adrenergic receptor kinase had a moderate reduction in activity, and the ccrM promoter had a slight reduction in activity. These genes are essential for viability. The moderate reduction in transcription for these genes agrees with the hypothesis that genes involved in essential cell cycle processes would not be severely affected by the reduction in CtrA in YB3558. In contrast, the pilA promoter exhibited a drastic decrease in activity, as would be expected given the selection by which this mutant was obtained. However, activity from the fliQ promoter (fliQ is a flagellar biosynthesis gene and not essential) was largely unaffected. It is not clear why this promoter is unaffected while the pilA promoter shows such a difference in activity. It could be that the pilA promoter is much more sensitive to CtrA levels. Regulation of pilA is controlled not only by CtrA, but by SciP.