were taken in tapping mode from Innova Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) system. The average and root mean square (RMS) roughness values were found to be 2.66 and 3.28 nm, respectively. However, the TiN surface was oxidized and it became TiO x N y . The surface of TiN Be was also observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM, JEOL 2100 F, JEOL Ltd., Akishima-shi, Japan) with energy of 200 keV, as shown in Figure 3b. The thickness of TiO x N y layer was approximately BAY 80-6946 3.5 nm. During electrical measurement, the bias was applied on the Cu TE while the BE was grounded. All the electrical measurements were carried out by Agilent 4156C semiconductor parameter analyzer (Agilent Technologies, Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA). Figure 2 Schematic view of via-hole device and OM image. (a) Schematic
view of the Cu pillar formation and memory characteristics of an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure. (b) Optical image (OM) of a typical 4 × 4 μm2 device. The ‘V4.0’ as indicated on OM image is via size of 4 × 4 μm2. Figure 3 AFM and HRTEM images for TiN layer. (a) Atomic force microscope (AFM) image shows surface roughness of TiN layer with a scan area of 1× 1 μm2. (b)The TiN surface is oxidized and is observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) image. Results and discussion Figure 4a shows current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of randomly measured 100 pristine devices in an Al/Cu/Al2O3/TiN structure. The sweeping voltages (0 → +5 → 0 → −1 → 0 V)
applied on the TE is selleck compound shown by arrows 1 to 4. A high current compliance of 70 mA is reached. Initial GNAT2 resistance state (IRS) shows high because of insulating properties of the Al2O3 film. After applying positive formation voltage (V form) on the TE, the device switches from IRS to low-resistance state (LRS). If current compliance is higher than 75 mA, then some devices are burned out because of joule heating. That is why the current compliance of 70 mA was used to protect the device. These devices do not show reset operation even a reset voltage of −1 V. This suggests that the strong Cu filament or pillar forms in the Al2O3 film, which we are looking at the metal interconnection for 3D memory stack. Figure 4b represents the narrow distribution of Vform for the 100 device-to-devices. The read voltage was 1 V. The mean value (σ m) and standard deviation (σ s) of forming voltages are +4.25 V and 0.3491. This implies that small external voltage (<5 V) is needed to form Cu pillar. Almost all devices have the formation of Cu pillar, which suggests the 100% yield. To analyze the device-to-device uniformity, both currents of IRS and LRS were read (V read) at a voltage of +1 V (Figure 4c). The σ m values of currents at IRS and LRS are found to be 25.9 pA and 49.96 mA, whereas the standard deviation (σ s) are 172.19 and 9.33, respectively. At V read of +2 V, the current through Cu pillar is 70 mA.