ar atresia. Nicotinamide, a form of vitamin B3, is a prod EPZ-5676 Histone Methyltransferase uct of Sir2 catalyzed deacetylation. It has been clearly demonstrated that nicotinamide can inhibit Sir2 enzymes and down regulate the e pression of SIRT1. In the present study, the nicotinamide treated mice had distinct features to the SRT or CR mice, their ovary weight, total number of follicles and mean number of follicles at differ ent stages were comparable to that of the NC and CHF mice, suggesting that nicotinamide attenuated the effect of SRT1720. These results also suggest that SIRT1 signaling may play an important role in the mechanism of CR e tending ovarian lifespan. SRT1720 treatment e tended estrous cycle It has been established that female reproductive aging is closely associated with a decreased ovarian follicle re serve and gradual loss in regular estrous cyclicity at mid dle age Hence, we e amined the status of estrous cycle in all groups.
We found that the CR mice gradually displayed an e tended estrous cycle due to a prolonged diestrus phase, while most HF mice e hibited a short ened estrous cycle or continuous estrus phase before drug treatment. After treated with SRT1720, 3 of the 6 SRT mice changed the continuous estrus phase to 3, 5 and 6 days, respectively. We supposed that the e tended estrous cycle of the CR and SRT mice resulted from in sufficient estrogen secreted by fewer mature follicles. This is in agreement with our follicle count results. SRT1720 treatment enhanced SIRT 1 signaling and attenuated mTOR signaling mTOR, a ubiquitous, evolu tionarily conserved serine threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of eukaryotic growth and cell division in response to nutrient and growth factor cues.
mTOR generates two distinct comple es rapamycin sensitive mTOR comple 1 and rapamycin insensitive mTORC2. Previous studies reported that mTORC1 S6K1 rpS6 signaling may be involved in the activation of mammalian primordial follicles and was nega tively regulated by SIRT1. With mammalian models of CR in our studies, we found that CR significantly enhanced the reserve of fol licle pool by suppressing the activation of primordial fol licles as well as decreased protein e pression of mTOR and pS6K, suggesting that CR could inhibited mTOR S6K signaling.
Interestingly, our results of the present study also showed that SRT1720 had similar ef fects with CR, Drug_discovery in which SRT1720 not only enhanced the reserve of follicle pool, but also down regulated mTOR signaling, suggesting that mTOR signaling may be nega tively regulated by SIRT1 signaling. We found, moreover, in the present study that SRT1720 induced a decrease of energy intake by 33. 4%, meaning that the SRT1720 treated mice were in a CR condition. Consistently, the body weight of SRT1720 treated mice was significantly less than that of the CHF mice, although they ate the same food as the CHF mice. These data also suggest that the effect of CR is realized through the activation of SIRT1. Taking to gether, we speculate that Calcitriol manufacturer SR