(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3626749]“
“A CAL 101 finite piece method is proposed to simulate three-dimensional slit flows in extrusion sheet dies in this paper. The simulations concern incompressible fluids obeying different constitutive
equations: generalized Newtonian (Carreau-Yasuda law), and viscoelastic Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) models. Numerical simulations are carried out for the isothermal and nonisothermal flows of polymer melt through sheet dies. The Picard iteration method is utilized to solve nonlinear equations. The results of the finite piece method are compared with the three-dimensional (3D) finite element method (FEM) simulation and experiments. At
the die exit, the relative error of the volumetric flow between the finite piece method and the 3D FEM is below 1.2%. The discrepancy of the pressure distributions does not exceed 6%. The Maximum error of the uniformity index between the simulations and experiments is about 2.3%. It shows that the solution accuracy of the finite piece method is excellent, and a substantial amount of computing time and memory requirement can be saved. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3189-3198, 2012″
Neural stem cells are currently being investigated as potential therapies for neuro-degenerative diseases, stroke, and trauma. However, LY3039478 solubility dmso concerns have been raised over the safety of this experimental therapeutic
approach, including, for example, whether there is the potential for tumors to develop from transplanted stem cells.
Methods see more and Findings
A boy with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was treated with intracerebellar and intrathecal injection of human fetal neural stem cells. Four years after the first treatment he was diagnosed with a multifocal brain tumor. The biopsied tumor was diagnosed as a glioneuronal neoplasm. We compared the tumor cells and the patient’s peripheral blood cells by fluorescent in situ hybridization using X and Y chromosome probes, by PCR for the amelogenin gene X- and Y-specific alleles, by MassArray for the ATM patient specific mutation and for several SNPs, by PCR for polymorphic microsatellites, and by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. Molecular and cytogenetic studies showed that the tumor was of nonhost origin suggesting it was derived from the transplanted neural stem cells. Microsatellite and HLA analysis demonstrated that the tumor is derived from at least two donors.
This is the first report of a human brain tumor complicating neural stem cell therapy. The findings here suggest that neuronal stem/progenitor cells may be involved in gliomagenesis and provide the first example of a donor-derived brain tumor. Further work is urgently needed to assess the safety of these therapies.