When the stripe width is reduced to 1.5 mu m, a relative reduction of thermopower up to 35% is measured in some metals. We suggest that the sidewall scattering due to rough edges of these stripes may be the origin of this unexpected phenomenon. The results may be applied to construct novel thermoelectric Selinexor manufacturer devices, such as thermocouples made from a single metal film. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3653824]“
“We present a method to measure the relative transmissibility (“”transmission
fitness”") of one strain of a pathogen compared to another. The model is applied to data from “”competitive mixtures”" experiments in which animals are co-infected with a mixture of two strains. We observe the mixture in each animal over time and over multiple generations of transmission. We use data from influenza experiments in ferrets to demonstrate the approach. Assessment of the relative transmissibility between two strains of influenza is important in at least three contexts: 1) Within the human population antigenically novel strains of influenza arise and compete for susceptible hosts. 2) During a pandemic event, a novel sub-type of influenza competes with the existing seasonal strain(s). The unfolding epidemiological dynamics are dependent upon both the population’s susceptibility profile and the inherent transmissibility of the novel strain BB-94 purchase compared to the
existing strain(s). 3) Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), while providing significant potential to reduce transmission of influenza, exert selective pressure on the virus and so promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Any adverse outcome due to selection and subsequent spread of an NAI-resistant strain is exquisitely dependent upon the transmission fitness of that strain. Measurement of the transmission fitness of two competing strains of influenza is thus of critical importance in determining the likely time-course and epidemiology of an influenza outbreak,
or the potential impact of an intervention measure such as NAI distribution. The mathematical framework introduced here also provides an estimate for the size of the transmitted inoculum. We demonstrate the framework’s behaviour using data Nutlin-3 mw from ferret transmission studies, and through simulation suggest how to optimise experimental design for assessment of transmissibility. The method introduced here for assessment of mixed transmission events has applicability beyond influenza, to other viral and bacterial pathogens.”
“Valproic acid (VPA) is associated with hyperammonemia; however, little is known about this phenomenon in the geriatric psychiatric population. Of 12 such patients prescribed VPA, 83.3% had elevated ammonia. This occurred in the absence of elevated liver enzymes, and there was no association of VPA serum-level to hyperammonemia.