performance enhancing) is favouring functional foods. However, exercise physiology literature is brimming with experimental studies using foodstuff, CB-5083 fruits and vegetables alike, to find natural sources of performance enhancing substances. For example, red berries are generally known for their antioxidant properties with recent studies looking into tart cherries to prevent symptoms of muscle damage . Future directions arising from this study relate to testing the effect of direct
experience on implicit and explicit attitudes, as well as investigating the stability of the observed change over time. The GW-572016 solubility dmso current study does not offer insight into behavioural intention or volition. Follow up studies should elucidate how attitude change upon vicarious or direct positive experience with functional food lead to behaviour change; and whether it will happen is a desirable direction. Conclusion Effective PED deterrence campaigns should accept that a desire for constant performance enhancement is natural to athletes. Instead of a solely prohibitive approach, anti-doping campaigns should promote acceptable and healthy alternatives to doping and primarily seek to create a community
HKI272 that takes the Olympic spirit further. Promoting the natural form (as opposed to the purified form of the main active ingredient) is key to the ‘alternative means’ approach. In the unrelenting quest for effective but not prohibited substances, athletes may put their health in great danger. There is a wide range of risks associated with the use of performance enhancing substances that do not apply to naturally occurring functional foods which Meloxicam mainly arise from the omission of the concentration step converting the foodstuff to a supplement or allegedly pure therapeutic agent with dosage ramifications. Improvements in our understanding of nutrigenomics and pharmacogenomics warrant caution regarding use of concentrated substances in supplement form. Owing to variations in genetic make-up the effect of a quantity of a supplement can vary enormously in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects
leading to large variations in therapeutic efficacy along with toxicity profiles. One of the criteria for a drug to be included into the list of prohibited substances is that it presents a danger to health. Functional foods, whilst aiding athletic performance, are the opposite: they are healthy. The campaign should include an online community that can offer information about comparable healthy alternatives and spread this approach for benefits to all stakeholders. Also better information should be made available about FFs regarding dosage and administration. As FFs are becoming increasingly available in a variety of products , wide dissemination of accurate information would facilitate safe intake and thus prevent overdosing. Acknowledgements Christiana Adesanwo assisted AP conducting the literature review on framing effect in social marketing.