Summary odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence

Summary odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.


The combined results showed that the CYP2E1 c1/c1 genotype was associated with increased ATDILI risk compared to variant genotypes (c1/c2+c2/c2) (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.09-1.69). When stratifying for study population, statistically significant results were observed in Chinese (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.12-1.92) and Korean populations (OR 1.85, 95%CI 1.04-3.30). In comparison with CYP2E1 c1/c2 or c2/c2 with rapid/intermediate acetylators, the risk of ATDILI increased from 1.88 (95%CI 1.14-3.09) for CYP2E1 c1/c1 with rapid/intermediate acetylators to 6.44 (95%CI 3.47-11.97) for CYP2E1 c1/c1 with slow acetylators.

CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI polymorphism may affect susceptibility to ATDILI, particularly among Chinese and Korean populations.”
“BACKGROUND: The treatment of multidrug-resistant NVP-BSK805 tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is currently based upon expert opinion and findings from case series, rather than upon randomised clinical trials (RCTs).

OBJECTIVE: To describe

the challenges encountered during an RCT for the treatment of MDR-TB.

METHODS: Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 30 was a pilot, Phase I/II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, RCT of the safety and tolerability of 16 weeks of daily, low-dose linezolid treatment for MDR-TB.

RESULTS: A total of 36 patients, 56% of the target of 64 patients, consented to participate, for an average of 0.69 enrolments per week. Of the selleck compound 36 patients enrolled, only 25 (69%) completed at least 90 doses of study treatment. Among the 12 (33%) patients who did not complete all 112 doses of the study treatment, the median time to study withdrawal was 15 days (range 0-92). After the study, we discovered discordance between treatment assignment and study drug for at least 9 (25%) of the 36 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention in this MDR-TB clinical trial posed substantial challenges, suggesting the need for a large, multidisciplinary group VX-661 of study staff to support the participants. Withdrawal

tended to occur early in study treatment. The discrepancy in assigned study medication reflects the need for stronger administrative controls for study drugs.”
“BACKGROUND: Treatment options for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are limited. Linezolid has been successfully used to treat DR-TB in adults, but there are few case reports of its use in children for TB. The reported rate of adverse events in adults is high.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of children with DR-TB treated with linezolid-containing regimens from February 2007 to March 2012 at two South African hospitals.

RESULTS: Seven children (three human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] infected) received a linezolid-containing regimen.

(C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe Published by Elsevier B

(C) 2011 Phytochemical Society of Europe. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal motor neuron degenerative disease. Most cases are sporadic (SALS), and approximately

10% are familial (FALS) among which over 20% are linked to the SOD1 mutation. Both SALS and FALS have been associated with retrograde axonal transport defects. Kinesins (KIFs) are motor proteins involved mainly in anterograde transport; however, some also participate in retrograde transport. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate and compare the expression of kinesins involved in anterograde (KIF5A, 5C) and retrograde (KIFC3/C2) axonal transport in SALS in humans and FALS in mice with the hSOD1G93A find more mutation. Methods: The studies were conducted on various parts of the CNS from autopsy specimens of SALS patients, and transgenic mice at presymptomatic learn more and symptomatic stages using real-time quantitative PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. Results: All KIF expression in the motor cortex of individual SALS subjects was higher than in the adjacent

sensory cortex, in contrast to the expression in control brains. It was also significantly higher in the frontal cortex of symptomatic but not presymptomatic mice compared to wild-type controls. However, the mean KIF expression in the SALS motor and sensory cortexes was lower than in control cortexes. To a lesser extent the decrease IWR-1-endo cost in KIF mean expression also occurred in human but not in mouse ALS spinal cords and in both human and mouse cerebella. Conclusion: Disturbances in kinesin expression in the CNS may dysregulate both anterograde and retrograde

axonal transports leading to motor neuron degeneration. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and Diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) are two representative chemicals in the carbodiimide class of chemicals used in industry as stabilizing agents. There is a potential of dermal exposure to these agents in chemical, pharmaceutical and recombinant DNA industries. The National Toxicology Program conducted a number of animal studies to characterize toxicity and carcinogenicity of DIC and DCC. Dermal administration of DCC and DIC in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice for 90-days induced skin irritation at the site of application in a dose-dependent manner. Microscopically, dose-dependent increases in epidermal hyperplasia and chronic inflammation were observed. We further evaluated the effects of dermal exposure of DCC and DIC in p53 haploinsufficient and Tg.AC mouse models. Results revealed the skin as the primary target of DCC and DIC exposure as indicated by dose – dependent skin lesions (hyperplasia, inflammation and necrosis). DCC induced squamous cell papillomas in Tg.

Subjects were characterized at baseline for urinary incontinence

Subjects were characterized at baseline for urinary incontinence severity and incontinence subtype (stress or urge) using the Medical, Epidemiologic, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) questionnaire, the Urogenital Distress Inventory, and a 7-day urinary diary. Various different definitions of MUI, ranging from low to high threshold, were created Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso using a combination of these baseline incontinence measures. Prevalence of MUI based

on each definition was described and compared to treatment response. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the study outcomes and the different definitions of MUI. Results: The 307 participants in the BE-DRI study had a mean age of 56.9 (+/-13.9) years with a mean total MESA score of 21.7 (+/-8.9) and a mean total UDI score of 120.5 (+/-49.6). The proportion of women diagnosed with MUI varied significantly by definition ranging from 63.5% to 96.4%. Low threshold symptom-based definitions resulted in nearly universal diagnosis of MUI. No strict cut-off value for these baseline measures was identified to predict clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Current MUI definitions do not adequately categorize clinically relevant UI subgroups. For research purposes we believe selleck it necessary to describe the severity of each incontinence

subtype separately in subjects with MUI. Neurourol. Urodynam. 30: 47-51, 2011. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), also called Vorinostat research buy juvenile diabetes because of its classically early onset, is considered an autoimmune disease targeting the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. T1D reflects a loss of tolerance to tissue self-antigens caused by defects in both central tolerance, which aims at eliminating potentially autoreactive lymphocytes developing in the thymus, and peripheral tolerance, which normally controls autoreactive T cells that escaped the thymus. Like in other autoimmune diseases,

the mechanisms leading to T1D are multifactorial and depend on a complex combination of genetic, epigenetic, molecular, and cellular elements that result in the breakdown of peripheral tolerance. In this article, we discuss the contribution of these factors in the development of the autoimmune response targeting pancreatic islets in T1D and the therapeutic strategies currently being explored to correct these defects.”
“Objective: To report the little known fact that systemically administered gentamicin can cause severe unilateral, rather than only bilateral vestibular loss.

Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients presenting with imbalance and oscillopsia due to a compensated, selective unilateral vestibular loss, who denied ever experiencing vertigo, but who had been administered systemic gentamicin during a hospital admission just before their symptoms began.

Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design Individ

Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Individual, open-ended interviews with each of the 18 next-of-kin, of persons receiving treatment for CRC, who participated in a PEP. Data were analyzed using content analysis.

Results: Based on

the experiences described by the next-of-kin to a person treated for CRC, the subtheme; Facing a personal challenge was developed. From their described experiences of participating in a PEP, the subtheme Obtaining New Insights and Perspectives emerged. One main theme was finally identified; Finding a Wider Horizon. The study illuminates the importance of integrating the next-of-kin/family in the colorectal cancer care.

Conclusion: The findings from this study can be used to plan future interventions for next-of-kin to patients with CRC as it offers possibilities to understand the next-of-kin’s situation and experience SBE-β-CD from participating in a PEP. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Z-DEVD-FMK All rights reserved.”
“The ferroelectric, dielectric, elastic, piezoelectric, and electromechanical properties of tetragonal Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O-3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O-3-PbTiO3 (PIN-PMN-PT) crystals were investigated. The single domain piezoelectric coefficients d(33), d(15), and d(31) were found to be 530, 2350, and -200 pC/N, respectively, with electromechanical coupling factors k(33), k(15), and k(31) being on the order of 0.84, 0.85, and 0.58. The mechanical quality factor

Q for longitudinal mode was found to be > 700, with high coercive field (E-c) being on the order of 10 kV/cm. The temperature and dc bias electric-field characteristics of

single domain tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals were also investigated. In contrast to [001] oriented domain engineered rhombohedral crystals, tetragonal PIN-PMN-PT crystals exhibited broader temperature usage range and higher thermal/electric field stability, with improved coercive field and mechanical quality factor. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3331407]“
“Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, debilitating, neurological disease with numerous Metabolism inhibitor urological manifestations including urinary detrusor overactivity, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, and urinary retention. Can sacral neuromodulation be successfully implemented for urinary retention in ambulatory women with multiple sclerosis?

Between January 2002 and January 2008, we conducted an observational retrospective case-control study where 12 of 14 consecutive, ambulatory women with multiple sclerosis had stage 1/2 sacral neuromodulation performed under general anesthesia for urinary retention.

Twelve of 14 patients (86%) were successfully implanted, with a mean follow-up of 4.32 +/- 1.32 years and mean postvoid residual of 50.5 +/- 21.18 ml. The mean maximum uroflow was 17.7 +/- 7.9 ml/s. Two of the 12 patients (17%) required revisional surgeries for lead migration, and 40% needed battery replacement.

This approach has been used to study the dynamics of many differe

This approach has been used to study the dynamics of many different viruses, and has demonstrated a wide variety of patterns, which have been interpreted in the context of changes over time in the ‘effective number of infections’, a quantity proportional to the number of infected individuals. However, for infectious diseases, the rate of coalescence is driven primarily by new transmissions i.e. the incidence, and only indirectly by the number of infected individuals through sampling effects. Using commonly used epidemiological models, we show that the coalescence rate may indeed reflect the number of infected individuals during the initial phase of exponential growth when time is scaled by infectivity,

but in general, a single change in time scale cannot be used to estimate the number of infected individuals. This has important implications when integrating phylogenetic Bromosporine in vitro data in the context of other epidemiological data.”
“Starch and montmorrilonite (MMT) were used as raw materials for synthesizing selleck kinase inhibitor starch-graft-poly[ acrylamide (AM)-acrylic acid (AA)]/MMT superabsorbent nanocomposite by graft and intercalation copolymerization reaction of starch, AM, and AA in the presence of organic MMT micropowder in aqueous solution. Major factors affecting water absorbency such as weight ratio of monomers to starch, weight ratio of AM to AA, neutralization degree of AA, amount of crosslinker, initiator, and

AG-881 concentration MMT were investigated. The superabsorbent nanocomposite synthesized under optimal synthesis conditions exhibits absorption of 1120 g H(2)O/g sample and 128 g H(2)O/g sample in deionized water and in 0.9 wt % NaCl solution, respectively. IR spectra showed that the graft copolymerization between -OH groups on MMT and monomers took place during the reaction, and that crystal interlayer was pulled open in the superabsorbent nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the crystal interlayer of MMT was pulled open to 2.73 nm, and thus formed nanometer exfoliation composite material. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that starch-graft-poly (AM-AA) superabsorbent nanocomposite

(8 wt % MMT) has good thermal stability. This superabsorbent nanocomposite with excellent water absorbency and water retention, being biodegradable in nature, economical and environment friendly, could be especially useful in industry, agricultural, and horticultural applications. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 2406-2412, 2011″
“Short-form publications such as Plant Disease reports serve essential functions: the rapid dissemination of information on the geography of established plant pathogens, incidence and symptomology of pathogens in new hosts, and the discovery of novel pathogens. Many of these sentinel publications include viral sequence data, but most use that information only to confirm the virus’ species.

Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“A new meth

Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A new method of preparation of oligoetherols containing perhydro-1,3,5-triazine rings from isocyanuric acid and an excess of glycidol, alkylene carbonates, or oxiranes is presented. The course of reaction was studied at various molar ratios of glycidol to isocyanuric acid. The structure

of the products was established, and some physical properties were measured. The oligoetherols were demonstrated to be useful substrates for polyurethane foams of enhanced KPT-8602 clinical trial thermal stability. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 417-426, 2011″
“The influences of triangular fins’ positions on controlling the magnetization processes are investigated. It is observed experimentally that when the included angle between the triangular fins and the field direction is 15 degrees or 30 degrees, the magnetization reversals are repeatable in the sweep-up and sweep-down processes, and the magnetization processes are controllable. In contrast, when the included angle between the triangular fins and the field direction is 45 degrees or 60 degrees, the magnetization reversals are unrepeatable BMS-777607 manufacturer and random in the sweep-up and sweep-down processes. Magnetization reversal can only be controlled when positions of the triangular fins are close to the original nucleation regions of the rings. When triangular

fins are away from the original nucleation regions, two kinds of magnetization reversals randomly occur without being controlled by the artificial nucleation sites, and the triangular fins thus lose their control ability. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3567052]“
“The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement

may be coloured by pre-existing PP2 in vitro practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one’s own practise. (C) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Four types of polyhedral oligosilsesquioxanes (POSS) were incorporated into chitosan by solution blending to fabricate composite membranes. The thermal stability of the composite membranes was improved compared with the neat chitosan membrane. For the mechanical properties, the stiffness of the composite membranes was weakened by the presence of POSS. However, the effects of POSS on the strength and elongation at break of the composite membranes depended on the type of POSS incorporated.

37 MPa at 37 d of withholding water K(+) increased up to 16 d of

37 MPa at 37 d of withholding water. K(+) increased up to 16 d of drying and then decreased towards 37 d. Glycinebetaine, proline, glucose and fructose all increased

during the draw-down period, although with different dynamics: e.g. glycinebetaine increased linearly whereas glucose showed an exponential increase. By contrast, sucrose declined. K(+) was the major contributor to OA (viz. 54%) up to 30 Fludarabine concentration d of drying, whereas glycinebetaine, proline and glucose were major contributors later (at d 37 these organic solutes each accounted for 19, 21 and 21% of OA). Thus, the various solutes that contributed to leaf OA in wheat cv. Hartog accumulated at different times as WD developed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“A 23-year-old man presented with bilateral persistent fetal vasculature (PFV). Examination revealed bilateral cataracts, lens subluxation, elongated ciliary processes, and persistent hyaloid vessel remnants with mild posterior segment involvement. Extracapsular cataract extraction

combined with posterior capsulectomy and anterior vitrectomy was performed in the right eye; lensectomy, posterior capsulectomy, anterior vitrectomy, superior peripheral iridectomy, and anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation were performed in the left eye. Postoperatively, the corrected distance visual acuity improved (20/100 in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye) and the cosmetic appearance was AZD9291 cell line satisfactory. This case shows that in rare cases of bilateral PFV, the natural course can be benign, with functional, although amblyopic, vision. In selected cases, late surgical intervention can improve vision and cosmetic appearance.”
“The understanding and control of anisotropy

in Fe films grown on cubic systems such as GaAs and MgO has been of interest from the point of view of applications in devices. We report magnetic anisotropy studies on Fe/GaAs(001) and Fe/MgO/GaAs(001) prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Wnt assay In Fe/GaAs(001), magneto optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements revealed a dominant uniaxial anisotropy for Fe thickness less than 20 monolayers (ML) and this was confirmed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies. Multiple steps in the hysteresis loops were observed for Fe films of thickness 20 and 25 ML. Whereas, in Fe/MgO/GaAs(001), even at 25 ML of Fe, the uniaxial anisotropy remained dominant. The anisotropy constants obtained from FMR spectra have shown that the relative strength of uniaxial anisotropy is higher as compared to the cubic anisotropy constant in the case of Fe/MgO/GaAs(001). (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3556941]“
“Psoralen, an important furanocoumarin occurring abundantly in seeds of Psoralea corylifolia is used as an anticancerous compound against leukemia and other cancer cell lines.

3, P = 0 01), CMV infections (HR 1 6, P = 0 001), and AMR (HR 1 5

3, P = 0.01), CMV infections (HR 1.6, P = 0.001), and AMR (HR 1.5, P = 0.002). The significantly worse graft survival in the alemtuzumab cohort may be due to the increased rates of AMR and infectious complications.”
“Compressive intradural metastases of the cauda equina are a rare site of metastatic spread in systemic cancer. So far, only few reports have been published with

conflicting statements concerning a surgical versus nonsurgical approach.

Five patients with symptomatic space-occupying intradural metastases of the cauda equina were analyzed retrospectively, focusing on the influence of surgical intervention on pain relief, neurological outcome and thus the patients’ quality of life.

At the time of diagnosis, all patients were in an advanced metastatic state. Surgical resection was the primary treatment in four patients and radiotherapy Cilengitide research buy in one. Despite infiltration of the cauda rootlets, gross total tumour resection could be achieved in two of the four patients treated surgically. Functional outcome

was beneficial in these patients with marked and immediate relief of pain and improvement of motor function even following incomplete tumour resection.

Surgical treatment of compressive intradural metastases of the cauda equina seems to be feasible with low operative risk and with the potential benefit of an immediate relief of pain and improvement in motor function and thus an increase in quality Selleck GW786034 of life.”
“Study Design. Data collected prospectively from the Prospective Pediatric Scoliosis Study (PPSS) were analyzed statistically to address the hypothesis that PD0332991 clinical trial covered specific aspects of treatment and its outcome.

Objective. To assess and contrast Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) outcome scores for patients assigned to one of three types of spinal instrumentation constructs.

The study hypothesis was that the instrumentation strategy that provides the best curve correction will be associated with the best SRS scores.

Summary of Background Data. Surgical treatment of scoliosis has evolved over time using implants and surgical techniques; however, quality of life indicators have not typically been analyzed to assess whether surgery and instrumentation will improve quality of life in pediatric patients.

Methods. Patients were assigned to one of three instrumentation groups depending on the type of construct used. The Scoliosis Research Society’s SRS-30 survey was used to measure patient outcomes comparing preoperative results to a 2-year follow-up.

Results. Changes in the SRS Pain, Activity, Appearance, Mental, Satisfaction, and SRS Total domains did not differ significantly among instrumentation groups for any time intervals. However, analysis of SRS Pain did show a significant change over time for all instrumentation patterns. The analysis of SRS Activity showed a significant change over time for all instrumentation patterns preoperatively to 2 years postoperatively.

“The effectiveness of a knowledge-based intervention

“The effectiveness of a knowledge-based intervention in increasing levels of knowledge about epilepsy and reducing negative stereotypes toward people

with epilepsy was examined. University psychology students (N = 131) completed measures of knowledge of and familiarity with epilepsy and attitudes toward people with epilepsy before and after watching a first aid educational video. Results showed that the video was effective in both enhancing the level of knowledge of epilepsy and improving attitudes toward epilepsy. The video was rated highly on measures of acceptability. This study illustrates the effectiveness of using a simple, cost-effective educational intervention, with specific knowledge-based information incorporating the viewer’s emotional involvement, to improve knowledge and reduce stigma regarding epilepsy in a targeted influential group. Presenting this first aid educational video to the public, specifically those who are most likely to encounter someone with epilepsy (e.g., teachers, future health professionals), may be particularly fruitful. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“High silicon steel is widely

used in electrical appliances. Alloying iron with silicon improves its magnetic performance. A silicon content up to 6.5 wt. % gives excellent magnetic properties such as high saturation magnetization, near zero magnetostriction and low iron loss in high frequencies. Their workability is greatly reduced by the appearance of ordered structures, namely B2 and D0(3), as soon as the Si content becomes higher than 3.5 wt. Acalabrutinib research buy %. This limits the mass production by conventional rolling to this maximum percentage of Si. In this work a series of FeSi (7.5 wt. % Si) samples with different degrees of deformation are investigated with positron annihilation spectroscopy and optical microscopy (OM). The influence of annealing on the concentration of defects of different deformed FeSi alloys has been investigated by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening of the annihilation radiation. OM is used to investigate the microstructure of deformed samples before and

after annealing. The values of the S parameter present a decrease for all studied FeSi alloys with the increase of the annealing temperature, being attributed to a decrease of the concentration of defects. A sudden increase of the S-parameter value at 600 degrees C was observed for all samples, which could be related to the change of the ordering of the FeSi alloys at that temperature. At 700 degrees C, the values of the S parameter decreased drastically and starting from 900 degrees C, they became constant. The microstructures of the alloys, investigated by OM, show that recrystallization is completed at 900 degrees C and the samples are mainly free of defects, which is in agreement with the positron annihilation lifetime data. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.

Conclusions: MTM in the ambulatory clinic is feasible despite the

Conclusions: MTM in the ambulatory clinic is feasible despite the increase in pharmacist workload from documenting and billing. The increased visibility of clinical pharmacy services justifies the extra time required for formal MTM.”
“Recent click here advances in high throughput, high content “”omic”" technologies coupled with clinical information has lead to the

expectation that the complexity of the molecular information generated will lead to more robust scientific research as well as the expectation that overarching therapeutic approaches will be patient-tailored to the underlying specific molecular defects of the disease. As disease understanding progresses and more therapeutics, which predominately target proteins, are developed there is a need to more confidently determine the protein signaling events that can be correlated with drug response since the deranged protein signaling networks are often the drug target itself. In this environment, the Reverse Phase Protein Microarray (RPMA) can be utilized to address the needs of both clinical screening and disease understanding through its ability to provide an unmatched functional and highly multiplexed signaling network level mapping of ongoing signaling activation, coupled with the ability of the platform to provide this information reproducibly from a tiny

needle biopsy specimen or fine needle aspirate. This platform has now been utilized for biomarker discovery/validation and advancements Epigenetics inhibitor in disease understanding both in the clinic and at the bench in the fields of cancer, liver disease, immunological disorders, and bacterial infection.”
“Objective: We aimed to compare clinical presentation and risk factors associated with the development of pneumothorax among newborns of different birth weight (BW) categories.

Methods: We collected clinical and respiratory data on all newborns diagnosed with pneumothorax over a 10-year period. Infants

were classified into two groups with BW >= 2500 g and <2500 g.

Results: From 13 811 infants, we identified 77 with pneumothorax (BW >= 2500 g in 33 and BW <2500 g in 44 infants). The prevalence of pneumothorax in the two BW categories was 0.27% and 2.5%, respectively. Infants with BW >= Nepicastat 2500 g were diagnosed with neumothorax at a median age of 5.5 h, and mostly (70%) did not require intubation. Infants with BW <2500 g were diagnosed with pneumothorax at a median age of 34 h, presenting with hypercarbia and increased requirement for supplemental oxygen. The majority of these infants (89%) received mechanical ventilation after pneumothorax. When compared to matched controls, there was a lower proportion of African-American infants in the pneumothorax group (48% versus 73%, p=0.029) and a higher rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (30% versus 7%, p=0.004).

Conclusions: Onset, presentation and management of pneumothorax varied according to BW.