25 and 29 In these investigations, fluorescence microscopy and molecular diagnosis methods have commonly showed higher taxes of bacterial adhesion on different substrates and surface treatments. By contrast, fungal adhesion has been superficially described. Only few studies have demonstrated the fungal adhesion on implant abutment materials. Bürgers et al. 30 showed in an in vitro experimental model, moderate to higher fungal cells adhering to titanium and Zc substrates. Similarly to our study, surface roughness was not see more correlated to fungal
adhesion. According to the authors, surface free energy seems to have a more relevant impact in Candida spp. adhesion on Zc substrate. Conversely to our data, sandblasted specimens presented the lowest cell counts and Zc did not show any reduced potential to adhere C.
albicans. A rationale for the inverse result between our studies may be related to the differences in experimental model. In contrast to this investigation, we have analysed the fungal adhesion after oral exposure of specimens. Human saliva comprises a large spectrum of pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms including bacterial and fungal species. These species co-exist in equilibrium inside the oral cavity. click here In addition, nutrients and immune factors present in human saliva can interfere with the final result of detection. Another explanation could be related to the differences in chemical properties of tested materials. Our results are in accordance with Scarano et al. 31 and Hisbergues et al. 32 The authors
have shown a low potential of Zc to adhere to micro-organisms. next Candida spp. colonising acrylic denture have been extensively studied and associated with denture stomatitis. 16 and 17 However, there are few studies concerning Candida spp. adhesion on implant abutment components in the applied literature. It seems to be of clinical relevance to investigate this issue as these opportunistic species have been described to be present in the initial biofilm formation 30 and are strongly associated with denture stomatitis. 33 The long-term success of implant-supported prostheses treatment is strikingly related to the quality and quantity of recipient bone, implant material characteristics and, not less important, the healthy condition of recipient site. 34 and 35 A deficient oral hygiene associated with inherent gaps between implant components may favor microbial adhesion resulting inflammatory reactions. 36Candida spp. have been found harbouring peri-implantar sites in healthy and diseased subjects. 13 and 18 DNA-probe analyses have been extensively used to identify and quantify bacterial species in healthy and diseased patients.18, 37, 38 and 39 These methods are faster and more reliable than conventional culture.20 DNA checkerboard was initially described by Socransky et al.20 and has recently reported higher contamination indices in implant dentistry.