No Pav HopAZ1 sequence shares more than 71% amino acid identity with any other Pav sequence, and they each form very strongly supported distinct phylogenetic clusters with other HopAZ1 alleles (Additional
file 3: Figure S3). Five other T3SEs are present in the majority of P. syringae strains and have phylogenies congruent with the core genome. These include two that were lost in the see more common ancestor of all phylogroup 2 strains (hopR1 and hopAS1) and three that have recently been lost in the phylogroup 1 Pav lineage (hopI1, hopAH1 and hopAG1). All other Pav T3SEs have been acquired by horizontal transfer since the two Pav lineages https://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd6738.html diverged from each other. In the phylogroup 2 lineage, avrB3 was acquired by the common ancestor of all phylogroup 2 strains, hopBF1 was acquired by the common ancestor of phylogroup 2 Pav, and hopBA1 was acquired by Pav Ve013
since its divergence from Pav Ve037. In the phylogroup 1 lineage, six T3SEs were acquired by the common ancestor of all phylogroup 1 strains. Nine additional T3SEs (plus hopAZ1) were acquired by the common ancestor of Pav BP631, Pmp 302280 and Pan 302191. However, the majority selleck of T3SE gain has occurred since Pav BP631 diverged from its common ancestor with Pmp 302280 and Pan 302191 (15, plus hopX1 and hopAI1), almost half of which are pseudogenes. Discussion The hazelnut decline pathogen P. syringae pv. avellanae provides a striking example of convergent evolution of host-specificity. While both Pav lineages are part of the P. syringae species complex, one must go back to the origin of the species complex to find their most recent common ancestor . The fact that these two lineages began causing disease on hazelnut at roughly the same time and give rise to similar disease phenotypes makes it seem unlikely that their convergent evolution occurred entirely independently. However, we find almost no evidence of genetic exchange between these
lineages, this website and little similarity in their respective virulence gene complements. Hazelnut decline was first described in Greece caused by phylogroup 1 Pav, yet there is strong evidence that phylogroup 2 Pav emerged first. MLSA studies show that the phylogroup 2 Pav clade, which is restricted to Italian isolates, has over four times the genetic diversity found among the phylogroup 1 Pav strains, which include both Greek and Italian isolates . This is significant since the extent of genetic diversity is usually associated with evolutionary age (baring the influence of certain evolutionary process or demographic changes). This is borne out by our molecular dating results.