05 vs BUD Overall, withdrawal rates were lower in studies I and

05 vs BUD. Overall, withdrawal rates were lower in studies I and IV than in studies II and III (figure 1). The percentage of patients with mild to selleck chemicals moderate asthma (study I) who withdrew due to ≥1 predefined asthma event was similar in the BUD/FM and BUD groups. Percentages of patients with moderate to severe asthma (studies II, III, and IV) who withdrew due to ≥1 asthma event were numerically lower in the BUD/FM versus BUD groups, regardless of race. Additional GSK690693 price results from the individual studies have been previously described.[5–8] Conclusions Predefined asthma events are increasingly being utilized in clinical research studies as a sensitive composite control metric. An asthma event metric encompassing

measures of pulmonary function, symptoms, rescue medication use, and the need for additional medications was investigated in the present analysis. While individual studies were not powered for statistical analyses, predefined asthma event rates in four 12-week, randomized studies consistently showed numerical or significant differences favoring BUD/FM pMDI over BUD across White, Black, and Hispanic patients, regardless of disease severity. Notably, the results of this analysis showing similar predefined asthma event rates among patients of differing racial backgrounds is consistent with the primary analyses showing the efficacy of BUD/FM

pMDI in Blacks[7] and Hispanics,[8] as well as a study demonstrating the efficacy of ICS/LABA in Blacks.[9] Additional discussion of findings and buy Tozasertib limitations

of the individual studies have been previously discussed.[5–8] Differences between the BUD/FM pMDI and BUD groups were smaller in patients with mild to moderate asthma than in patients with moderate to severe asthma, most likely because patients with milder disease had overall lower asthma event rates. These Demeclocycline data further support the efficacy of BUD/FM pMDI in achieving asthma control in patients with moderate to severe asthma, regardless of race. Acknowledgements This study was supported by AstraZeneca LP, Wilmington, DE, USA. Medical writing services, provided by Lisa Feder, PhD (Scientific Connexions, Newtown, PA, USA), were funded by AstraZeneca LP. K.R. Murphy, T. Uryniak, U.J. Martin, and J. Zangrilli made substantial contributions to the analysis and interpretation of data, drafted and revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content, and provided final approval of the version to be published. K.R. Murphy is a(n) consultant and advisor to and has received lecture fees and grants from AstraZeneca LP. T. Uryniak, U.J. Martin, and J. Zangrilli are shareholders and employees of AstraZeneca LP. References 1. American Lung Association. Trends in asthma morbidity and mortality. July 2011 [online]. Available from URL: http://​www.​lungusa.​org/​finding-cures/​our-research/​trend-reports/​asthma-trend-report.​pdf [Accessed 2011 Oct 21] 2.

In this study we used exotoxin analysis, functional genomics and

In this study we used exotoxin analysis, functional genomics and a murine infection model to investigate the relative contribution of α-hemolysin, α-type phenol

soluble modulins and Panton-Valentine leukocidin to the enhanced virulence of ST93 CA-MRSA. We show that CP690550 increased virulence in the BALB/c mouse skin infection model is less dependent on α-type phenol soluble modulin or Panton-Valentine leukocidin production but is instead due to high-level expression of α-hemolysin in this clone, controlled predominantly by the agr system. Results and discussion The emergence of CA-MRSA is a major public health issue, and there is a clear need to understand the basis for both virulence and transmission of global clones of CA-MRSA. The genetically distinct CA-MRSA clone ST93-IV [2B] has rapidly become the dominant clone in Australia and its rise accounts for the increase in incidence of CA-MRSA as a whole in this country [13]. We, and others have previously shown that ST93 strain JKD6159 is

the most virulent global clone of S. aureus in murine models [14, 15]. To determine the mediators of virulence in this clone we initially studied exotoxin expression in a large collection of ST93 AZD0156 price S. aureus from around Australia, and compared representative high and low LY2835219 datasheet expressing strains to an international selection of clones. Exotoxin expression in ST93 CA-MRSA strains Staphylococcus aureus expresses a wide range of exotoxins that may contribute to virulence. Because Hla, PVL and α-type PSMs have been found by others to be important virulence factors

in CA-MRSA strains [9, 11, 16], we measured in vitro expression of these exotoxins by the wildtype ST93 strains and non-ST93 comparator strains. The main isolates used in this study are described in Table  1, while the collection of ST93 isolates from around Australia used for comparative exotoxin expression is from a study by Coombs et al.[17] and summarized in Additional file 1. The comparison of expression of international clones to the ST93 reference strain JKD6159 and three additional ST93 strains selected for genome sequencing (see about below) are shown in Figure  1, while the results for all 59 ST93 isolates compared to USA300 are shown in Additional file 2 (α-type PSMs) and Additional file 3 (Hla). The results of PVL analysis for the ST93 collection has been previously reported [17]. Because PVL is a 2-component exotoxin and both LukS-PV and LukF-PV are required for activity, we chose to measure LukF-PV expression by quantitative Western blot. LukF-PV was chosen over LukS-PV to obtain anti-LukF-PV antibody with increased specificity of binding as there was more sequence divergence between lukF-PV and the orthologous 2-component S. aureus exotoxins compared to lukS-PV. Although there are four α-type PSMs, PSMα3 causes the most significant neutrophil lysis [11] and we measured deformylated and N-formylated PSMα3 expression by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

In 8/10 cases, no difference in the level of staining was observe

In 8/10 cases, no difference in the level of staining was observed. The sample was too small for any statistical analysis (Table 3). Table 3 Level of heparanase staining in selleck chemicals llc samples from the primary tumor and metastases of the same patients Depth of stain color for heparanase Sample from primary tumor Sample from metastases Strong (2) 7 5 Weak (0–1) 3 5 Total 10 10 Discussion The primary endpoint of the current study was to check the expression of heparanase using immunohistochemistry staining of tumor samples taken from soft tissue sarcomas in adults. A limited number of studies have checked heparanase levels in different sarcoma types, including a study by Shafat Napabucasin et al. [16], which examined the

level of heparanase in pathological samples taken from children with Ewing’s sarcoma. Heparanase levels were evaluated using immunohistochemistry of 69 pathological samples utilizing methodology similar to that applied in this study. Over-expression of heparanase was seen in 51% of the cases. In another study, Masola et al. examined the expression of heparanase in 15 pathological samples and in the blood of children with rhabdomyosarcoma [24]. While pathological specimens were stained positive for heparanse, the level of the

enzyme in the blood was similar to healthy controls. The current study is the first attempt to evaluate the level of heparanase over-expression TSA HDAC mouse in sarcoma that frequently occurs in adults, showing a similar percentage of over-expression as in children’s sarcoma subtypes. A number of studies have found high levels of heparanase in tumor cells in comparison to normal and pre-cancerous cells [25, 26]. For example, Maxhimer et al. reported a high prevalence of heparanase expression SPTLC1 in breast tumor tissue at advanced stage (53%), in comparison to tumors at an early stage of the disease (23%) and in healthy breast tissue (0%) [27]. A study by Friedmann et al. [22] examined the level of heparanase in the mucous membrane of the colon and colon polyps and neoplasm,

using an mRNA probe directed against heparanase (in situ hybridization) and immunostaining. Heparanase expression increased when the level of cellular differentiation was lower and the dysplasia was higher, while there was almost no heparanase expression in normal cells. High expression of heparanase was found in primary colon cancer as well as in colon cancer metastases to the lungs, liver, and lymph nodes. In the sarcomas, the tissue of mesenchymal origin where the tumor forms is usually not defined. It is therefore not possible to document the heparanase level during the developmental stages of the tumor. As opposed to breast carcinoma but similar to colon carcinoma, the current study found a similar rates of heparanase over-expression in primary tumors and metastases. Most of the studies that addressed the question of heparanase expression were carried out on epithelial tumors.

Table 2 Detection of RD2 element genes in Lancefield group C and

Table 2 Detection of RD2 element genes in Lancefield group C and G streptococci by PCR. A. Detection of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins Strain M28_ Spy1306 M28_ Spy1307 M28_ Spy1308 M28_ Spy1325 M28_ Spy1326 M28_ Spy1332 M28_ Spy1336 GCS 15169 + + – + + – + 15170 + + – - + – - 15172 + + + + + – + 15173 + + – + + – + 15178 + + + + + + + 15181 + + – + + – + GGS 15163 + + – + + – + 15164 + + – + + – + 15165 + + – + + – + 15166 + + – + + – + 15167 + + -

+ + – + 15168 + + – + + – + 15171 + + + + + – + 15174 + + + + + + + 15175 + + + – - – - 15176 + + – + + – + 15177 + Ro 61-8048 research buy + – + + – + 15179 + + – + + – + 15180 + + + + + – + 15182 + + + + + + + B. PCR-tiling across the entire RD2 element. Example of the tiling across RD2 is presented in Figure 3. (+) PCR product present, (-) no product, * amplified fragment of different size than for strain MGAS6180     PCR-tiling fragment no. Strain group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 6180 A + + + + + + + + + + + + 15178 C – + + + + – - + – - + – 15174 G +(*) + + + + + – + + + + – 15182 G – + + + + + + + + + + – Discussion and Conclusions Analysis of multiple genomes of GAS shows that about 10% of the genome can be attributed to genetic material acquired horizontal gene transfer [3]. Multiple mobile genetic elements as prophages, ICE elements and ancient pathogenicity islands are part of GAS metagenome [3, 24].

Lack of detected natural

transformation of GAS, despite proposed MM-102 manufacturer mechanism mediated via quorum sensing mechanism, [25] stresses Cilengitide molecular weight the importance of transduction and conjugation processes in HGT. Since late 1970s multiple authors were studying plasmid conjugal transfer between various streptococcal species [26–28]. Later, based on sequence analyses and experimental rationale, horizontal transfer of genes/regions between GAS and GGS was implied [29–31]. Finally, recent publications report conjugative transfer of ICE elements in human and animal isolates of GAS, GBS, GGS, GCS and Streptococcus uberis [32, 33]. Our work demonstrates that genetic element RD2 from GAS strain MGAS6180 (serotype M28) can be horizontally Org 27569 transferred in the laboratory to other GAS strains by filter mating. The transfer frequency is comparable with inter-species transfer of ICESt3 [34]. However, we cannot exclude that the transfer frequency was influenced by the inactivation of M28_Spy1325-1326 genes. The genes encode putative extracellular proteins and can act as aggregation factors, in particular, M28_Spy1325 has homology to enterococcal conjugative plasmid pAM373 aggregation factor [35]. However, because we used filter mating technique that can at least partially circumvent the need of aggregation factor in the conjugation process, the lack of M28_Spy1325-1326 genes does not have to affect transfer frequency during filter mating.

For Affymetrix microarray analysis, total RNA was isolated from

For Affymetrix microarray analysis, total RNA was isolated from

NK, PT1 and PT3 cell lines using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. After treatment with 5 U/μg of RNase-free DNase I at 37°C for 1 hour, all the samples were frozen in and sent to University of Iowa DNA facility for microarray analysis. After cDNA synthesis, samples were applied to a Human Genome GeneChip HG-U133A (Affymetrix Inc. Santa Clara, CA). Array filtering and significant expressed gene identification Microarray Cell Cycle inhibitor data in the form of CEL files were imported into BRB ArrayTools developed by Dr. Richard Simon and Amy Peng Lamhttp://​linus.​nci.​nih.​gov/​BRB-ArrayTools.​html. HG-U133A microarray raw expression intensities of NK, PT1, and PT3 data were scaled to a target intensity of 100 units, normalized independently, using the robust multichip average (RMA) algorithm for the quantification of the expression level of target genes, Selleck Milciclib and passed by the filtering and subletting

criteria with any one absent (A) or marginal call (M). Genes that had more than 50% missing data across all observations were excluded from the analysis. Also, we selected those genes with an expression level of ≥ 20 in ≥ 25% of samples. Fold change has been transformed

based on log2(PT1/NK), log2(PT3/NK), log2(PT3/PT1), log2(PT3/non-PT3), respectively. Fold change above 2.0 was defined as differentially expressed genes between two cell lines, where it is meet fold >2 SD (above 97% confidence). Real-time quantitative PCR Validation of differential expressed genes was done by real-time Farnesyltransferase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RT-qPCR assays were performed using the Applied Biosystems 7500 Systems (Applied Biosystems, USA). Each sample was run in triplicate to ensure quantitative accuracy. We used Human Universal ProbeLibrary from Roche Applied Science. Assay specificity was attained through the combination of specific primers check details designed from ProbeFinderhttps://​www.​roche-applied-science.​com) web-based software. Seven genes, plus two reference genes, with their specific primers, and PCR product size information for real-time quantitative PCR validation are listed in Table4. Table 4 Primer information for real-time qPCR.

The number of deaths in the different subcategories was too small

The number of deaths in the different subcategories was too small to allow

meaningful conclusions. Discussion In this meta-analysis of all Merck-conducted, placebo-controlled clinical trials of alendronate, the occurrence of AF was uncommon, with most studies reporting two or fewer events. Across all studies, no clear association between overall bisphosphonate exposure and the rate of serious or non-serious AF was observed. The present study included published and unpublished data from all trials of alendronate of at least 3 months duration meeting eligibility criteria selected prior to analyses. The total number of individuals in the smaller, shorter studies was similar to the total number enrolled in FIT, permitting the comparison most relevant to determining whether AF was caused by the selleck inhibitor study medication or was a chance association. The analysis of rare event data is problematic. Poisson regression, the method used here, assumes a constant hazard rate over time, within each study. Given the small number of events, the appropriateness of this assumption within these studies would be hard to evaluate. Based on a review of AF in FIT and the incidence of AF SAEs in the HORIZON zoledronic acid trial, which were reported to have occurred

uniformly over time, the assumption of a constant hazard rate over time is reasonable, however, and the summary measure of the event rate per patient-year of follow-up for each trial appears to be appropriate. In addition, most GW3965 purchase commonly used selleck kinase inhibitor methods of meta-analysis (log-odd or log risk ratio) become undefined when zero events occur in either or both groups

of a study [13, 14]. Standard statistical software either eliminates these studies completely or introduces correction factors that seriously bias the results, but there is information to be gained about absolute risks by including large or long-running studies without any events. The results of the current meta-analysis are in accord with the findings of the FDA regarding all bisphosphonates, which concluded that the incidence of AF was rare in clinical trial data and Morin Hydrate that there was no clear association between overall bisphosphonate exposure and the rate of serious or non-serious atrial fibrillation [15]. Others who have looked at the incidence of AF in bisphosphonate trials since the initial reports by Black et al. [4] and Cummings and colleagues [5] have reported no association, including in a second trial of intravenous zolendronate [6–11]. Lewiecki et al. [10] analyzed pooled data from the four pivotal trials of ibandronate and found no increased risk of AF with any ibandronate regimen. Loke et al.

C-HP performed the XPS spectra measurement Y-TS conducted the FT

C-HP performed the XPS this website spectra measurement. Y-TS conducted the FTIR spectra measurement. Y-ES performed the Raman spectra measurement. SMS assisted in the data analysis. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background A clever trick by product designers is self-unfolding structures such as collapsible

laundry hampers and  pop-up’ tents. These ingenious designs involve a continuous ring structure that  unfolds’ to a larger configuration. Similar mechanisms have been proposed for systems ranging from stretchable electronics [1] to polymer membranes [2, 3] and hollow shell structures [4]. Here, we focus on the smallest possible unfolding system – a closed chain of carbon atoms LY3039478 mw – to investigate the limits of stability at the

atomistic scale. Insights from such structures can then be applied to more complex macromolecular systems, such as responsive polymer [5, 6] or protein-based materials [7–10]. A simple molecular system capable of folding into a simple ring structure while maintaining atomistic fidelity and behavior is desired. As such, a model system is constructed using carbyne – a one-dimensional carbon allotrope consisting of either a cumulative double-bond structure (cumulene) or alternating single and triple bonds (polyyne) [11, 12]; the polyyne structure is depicted in Figure 1a. This 1D carbon structure has caused recent interest due to its novel electron transport and the prospect of being components in atomistic scale circuits [13, 14], as well as recent synthesis of long chains [15–19]. Previous Amobarbital first-principle- check details and molecular dynamics (MD)-based studies [20–23] have characterized molecular mechanics (e.g., zero or near-zero temperatures) properties of isolated carbyne chains (e.g., in a vacuum). Considered here is a system of isolated closed-loop carbyne (Figure 1b) to explore the stability of a folded three-loop geometry (Figure 1c). Figure

1 Three-loop carbyne model and simulation. (a) Molecular structure of carbyne, a one-dimensional carbon allotrope composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms, consisting of alternating single-triple bonds. While chains of carbyne can be experimentally synthesized, they typically require heavy end-groups for stability [12, 19]. (b) A theoretical carbyne  loop’, circumventing the need for stabilizing end-groups by bonding the carbyne chain to itself. (c) Example molecular model of a folded carbyne loop in a stable three-ring configuration, with imposed overcurvature of three [68], similar to self-unfolding laundry hampers. In simplest terms, additional elastic strain energy due to curvature triggers unfolding from the three-loop configuration. However, to completely unfold from an initial coiled state at the molecular scale, both torsional and self-adhesive energetic barriers must be overcome, resulting in a range of stable conditions, depending on initial curvature (κ) and temperature (T).

To verify this effect, we chose compounds with distinct effects o

To verify this effect, we chose compounds with distinct effects on the amidolytic activity of thrombin. Fibrinogen is a glycoprotein with a molecular SB202190 nmr weight of 340 kDa, containing in its structure three pairs of different polypeptide chains called, respectively, Aα (610 aa, 67 kDa), Bβ (461 aa, 56 kDa) and γ (411 aa, 48 kDa). These chains are connected by 29 disulfide bonds forming a dimeric MEK inhibitor molecule (Aα Bβ γ)2 (Wolberg, 2007). Thrombin removes the N-terminal peptides from the Aα and Bβ chains which leads to fibrin formation. Thrombin also activates coagulation factor XIII which stabilizes

the fibrin clot by catalysis of covalent bonds between γ chains in the D domains of adjacent fibrin monomers and formation of α-polymers (Bijak et al., 2013a; Muszbek et al., 1999). Preincubation

of thrombin only with three of six tested compounds changed the ability of thrombin to induce fibrinogen polymerization. We observed that only cyanidin, quercetin and silybin in a dose-dependent manner decreased the maximal velocity of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization ICG-001 (Fig. 1a–c). When thrombin was preincubated with cyanin, (+)-catechin or (−)-epicatechin, the velocity of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization was very similar to the velocity of fibrinogen polymerization induced by untreated thrombin (Fig. 1d–f). SDS-PAGE analysis (Fig. 2) confirmed the results obtained by spectrophotometric measurement of fibrinogen polymerization. In this analysis we used the polyphenolic compounds at concentrations equal to IC50 of thrombin amidolytic activity of each of them and ten times higher than these IC50 values, but not more than 1,000 μM. Thrombin exosite I among others is responsible for binding to protease-activated receptors (PAR). Receptors PAR-1 and PAR-4

are present on the human platelet surface. Thrombin cleaves the N-terminal extracellular domain of PAR to expose a new N-terminus, which binds with the central extracellular loop of the same receptor causing its activation and initiating the intracellular signaling events (Hirano and Kanaide, 2003). Our study showed Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase that exposure of thrombin to cyanidin, quercetin or silybin resulted in a decrease in thrombin ability to induce platelet aggregation (Fig. 3a–c). This experiment also confirmed that cyanin, (+)-catechin and (−)-epicatechin had no inhibitory effect on the proteolytic activity of thrombin (Fig. 3d–f). Both experiments with human fibrinogen and platelets demonstrated that cyanidin, quercetin and silybin inhibited thrombin proteolytic activity. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of silybin on thrombin was significantly weaker than the effect of cyanidin and quercetin. Asmis et al. (2010) suggest that 0.5 % DMSO inhibits platelet response to arachidonate, but aggregation in response to other agonists (ADP, collagen, ristocentin, epinephrine, U46619) was not affected by DMSO. We also checked the effect of 0.

Bronchoalveolar lavages Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was ha

Bronchoalveolar lavages Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was harvested as previously described [20]. Mice were euthanized by injection of Pentobarbital (Sanofi Santé Animale, Libourne, France) and the respiratory

tract was exposed by dissection. A small incision was made near the top of the trachea, and a blunt-end 20-gauge needle was inserted and tied in place with surgical thread around the trachea. BAL GDC-0994 cost fluid was obtained by 10 rounds of filling the lungs with 0.7 ml PBS and withdrawing as much of the liquid as possible. The samples were centrifuged to collect BAL fluid cells. BAL fluid cells were washed and resuspended in 1 ml PBS and aliquots were removed for counting with a hemocytometer and for cytospin centrifugation on a microscope slide, followed by DNA staining with Hoechst 33342 for identification of cell types. To determine the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the samples, 100 cells from several microscopy fields

were identified. Flow cytometry using macrophage Adriamycin marker antibodies F4/80 (Miltenyi-Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) and Gr-1 (Biolegend, San diego CA USA) was used to verify the extent of macrophage depletion within the BAL of clodrolip treated animals. Cell viability was evaluated using the trypan dye exclusion (Sigma-Aldrich). In vivo and in vitro imaging of bioluminescence ADAM7 Images were acquired using an IVIS 100 system according to the manufacturer’s VX-680 molecular weight instructions and as previously described [16]. In brief, 100 μl of PBS containing 3.33 mg D-luciferin was intraperitoneally injected in mice before each measurement. Mice were anesthetized using a constant flow of 2.5% isofluorane mixed with oxygen using an XGI-8 gas anesthesia system (Xenogen

Corporation). Images from mice were acquired 10 min after luciferin injection. Acquisition and quantification were performed using Living Image software version 3.1 (Xenogen Corporation). Quantification of photons per second emitted by each organ was performed by defining regions of interest corresponding to the respective organ of interest. The presence of A. fumigatus within the different organs was confirmed by histopathological analysis. For in vitro measurement of fungal germination within the BAL, D-luciferin in a final concentration of 10 mM was added directly to cells pelleted at the surface of chamber slides. The reaction was pre-incubated for 10 min at room temperature and measurement was performed with the IVIS 100 system. Determination of fungal DNA from infected lungs by quantitative real-time PCR A quantitative real-time PCR approach was selected to determine the fungal burden by quantification of the amount of fungal DNA among the total DNA isolated from lung tissues. The lung of a mouse not infected with A. fumigatus served as negative control.

One of the limited options in obtaining molecular data defining t

One of the limited options in obtaining molecular data defining the behavior of these cells is by development of models, initially with a limited number of key components that define the in vivo system. Such models can be expanded subsequently to include additional key components in order to determine their effects on the model and validate the data obtained. Towards understanding basic elements of dormancy, we developed an in vitro model incorporating

three key elements affecting breast cancer cell dormancy in the bone marrow microenvironment [3]. The components of our system consist of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell this website lines MCF-7 and T-47D, fibronectin and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) 10 ng/ml. Estrogen-dependent breast cancer cell lines model estrogen-dependent human tumors, which are likely to remain dormant for extended periods and are least likely to have distant

metastatic recurrences [4–6]. In the clinical setting, recurrent estrogen receptor positive cells continue to be estrogen sensitive and susceptible to hormonal blockade [7, 8]. The second element of our system is fibronectin, a structural protein of the bone marrow microenvironment in physical contact with the dormant cells. Fibronectin is found throughout the bone marrow and particularly in the endosteum where buy C59 wnt homing hematopoietic stem cells have a high affinity [9]. Casein kinase 1 Fibronectin is VX-680 concentration produced in high amounts with a characteristic cellular matrix formation in an extensive network [10] by two types of bone marrow stromal cells, the subendosteal reticulocytes and osteoblasts [11]. Both have functional roles in hematopoiesis, with the latter inducing low

proliferation and high maintenance of early haemopoietic progenitors, while reticulocytes promote proliferation and differentiation in an in vitro co-culture model [11]. Evidence suggests that metastatic breast cancer cells usurp the hematopoietic niche and respond to signals from the stromal elements [12]. Fibronectin is upregulated in this pre-metastatic niche primed to receive metastatic cancer cells [12]. In an in vitro co-culture system, tumor cells binding to bone marrow stromal cells exclusively depended on the fibronectin receptor integrin α5β1 [10]. The third element of our model is basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). FGF-2 is a morphogenic differentiation factor in mammary epithelial cells [13]. It inhibits the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells [14] and promotes their partial re-differentiation [15]. This includes a diminished malignant potential in vitro, including decreased motility and invasion [15, 16] and anchorage independent growth [17] and decreased tumor growth in murine xenografts [16]. Breast cancer cells transfected with FGF-2 also form branching duct-like stuctures in Matrigel [15].