Proteomics 2009,9(23):5389–5393.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions MM and BC had equal contribution. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Erratum to: Int J Clin Oncol (2009) 14:534–536
DOI 10.1007/s10147-009-0875-6 In the printed version of the article, the accepted date was incorrectly shown. The correct date should be January 10, 2009, not 2008. The publisher sincerely Savolitinib nmr apologizes for the error.”
“Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is an emerging global problem with very similar clinical presentations across different clones, despite significant genetic diversity . Many CA-MRSA strains carry lukSF-PV in the accessory genome, which encodes the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), an exotoxin that causes neutrophil lysis . Although there has been considerable controversy as to the role of this toxin in CA-MRSA pathogenesis, some of this may be explained by a variable, species dependent susceptibility to PVL – human and rabbit neutrophils are lysed by PVL at very low concentrations whilst mouse and monkey neutrophils are less susceptible, making the interpretation
of animal model data difficult in some cases . Additionally, Smoothened the importance of PVL is also likely to be dependent on the site of infection. In the rabbit pneumonia model, PVL has been demonstrated to have a clear Ganetespib chemical structure role in mediating severe lung necrosis and inflammation
. In contrast, in skin infection, even in the rabbit model, its role remains less clear [4, 5]. Notwithstanding PVL, the increased expression of other core genome virulence determinants also contributes significantly to the increased virulence of CA-MRSA strains [6, 7]. These include α-hemolysin (Hla) and α-type phenol soluble modulins (PSMs). Hla is a pore-forming exotoxin that lyses many cells including red cells, platelets, monocytes and endothelial cells . Hla has been demonstrated to be an important mediator of virulence in skin infection and pneumonia [9, 10]. The α-type PSMs have been recently characterized and they lyse neutrophils and red cells [11, 12]. The α-type PSMs also mediate virulence in skin infection and septicemia and of these, PSMα3 is the most potent . The study of unique, distantly related CA-MRSA clones that also demonstrate AZD0156 enhanced virulence, may provide insights into the emergence of the global CA-MRSA phenomenon, and also help define the genomic determinants of enhanced virulence.