To be able to quantify the different morphological aspects (bands, islets, and cavities), the following equation was formulated: equation(1) Frat=BA+IA+CAwhere B is the number selleck compound of 3 mm-long areas with alternating white and pigmented bands, I is the number of islets (small round white areas located within pigmented bands), and C is the number of cavities (cavities in enamel reaching dentine). A is the number of 3 mm-long areas along the long axis of the buccal surface. Surface features (B, I, and C) of each tooth were recorded and included in Eq. (1). On the basis of the findings of the present study, a particular scoring system ( Table 1) was formulated, to categorize
each tooth. All the teeth were analysed under the previously calibrated stereomicroscope (magnification of 10× and calibrated reticule in one eyepiece) by two blinded examiners (intraexaminer and interexaminer kappa values were 0.8 and 0.86, respectively). Hand-ground longitudinal enamel sections (100 μm thick) of three incisors from each score (scores 1–5) were prepared for microscopic analysis. Score 1 samples from both the control group and the Pb group were examined, since none of them exhibited fluorosis and both were assigned score 1. Preparation of the hand-ground incisor Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor sections is critical for microscopic analysis, as shown by us before, and details how these
sections were prepared can be found elsewhere.15 Longitudinal ground
sections from the centre of the buccal surfaces were manually prepared using a lapping jip. The thickness of the samples (∼80 μm) was measured to the nearest 2 μm with the sample positioned edge-on in a compound transmission light microscope equipped with an eyepiece containing a calibrated (-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate reticle. Qualitative analyses of the ground sections were performed by means of a polarizing light microscope equipped with a Red I filter under water immersion (after immersion in distilled water for 24 h), followed by analysis under immersion in Thoulet’s solution (solution of potassium iodide and mercurial iodide in water) with a refractive index of 1.62 (after immersion in Thoulet’s solution 1.62 for 48 h). The refractive indexes of the immersion solutions were determined in an Abbe refractometer. Representative pictures of the qualitative analyses were taken. The same ground sections analysed under light microscopy were mounted on high definition photoplates (2000 lines/mm) and exposed to X-rays in a Faxitron MX20 machine operating at 30 kV and 0.3 mA for 90 min. Digital images of developed photoplates were obtained by a light microscopy in bright field for qualitative analyses. Calcified tissue samples for fluoride analyses were obtained as previously described.13 One femur of each animal was totally dissolved in 6 mL of 65% HNO3 (ultrapure grade). This acid extract was utilized for fluoride and phosphate determination.