(C) 2011 Elsevier

Masson SAS All rights reserved “

(C) 2011 Elsevier

Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The development of lab-on-chip devices is expected to dramatically change biochemical analyses, allowing for a notable increase of processing quality and throughput, provided the induced chemical reactions are well controlled. In this work, we investigate the impact of local acoustic mixing to promote or accelerate such biochemical reactions, such as antibody grafting on activated surfaces. During microarray building, the spotting mode leads to low efficiency in the ligand grafting and heterogeneities which limits its performances. To improve the transfer rate, we induce a hydrodynamic flow in the spotted droplet to disrupt SB203580 the steady state during antibody grafting. To prove that acoustic mixing increases the antibody transfer rate to the biochip surface, we have used a Love-wave sensor allowing for real-time monitoring of the biological reaction for different operating conditions (with or without mixing). An analysis of the impact of the proposed mixing on grafting kinetics is proposed and finally

checked in the case of antibody-antigen combination. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3576113]“
“Background: In Switzerland 5% to 10% of hospitalized adults acquire nosocomial infections (NI) but few data are available in children. Most former studies on NI in hospitalized children analyzed specific units or pathogens and neglected the postdischarge period. We aimed to prospectively assess viral NI occurring during and shortly after hospitalization in children.

Methods: Prospective CA3 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor surveillance was performed during a 24-month period. Electronic standardized questionnaires were completed for

each patient by physicians during hospital stay. On a ward-based rotational buy Elacridar schedule, follow-up information was obtained from a subset of patients 1 week after hospital discharge. NI were defined using CDC recommendations.

Results: Overall, 6250 patients (34,608 patient hospitalization days, PHD) were enrolled and 1272 patients were recruited for postdischarge surveillance. Mean hospitalization duration was 5 days. Fifty-two (0.8%) patients acquired 54 viral NI during hospitalization and 12 patients (1.1%) acquired 12 viral NI after hospital discharge (NI incidence: 1.9 per 1000 PHD including follow-up period). NI rate in infants was higher compared with children >12 months old (2.0% vs. 0.8%; P < 0.05) and the infant ward also had the highest incidence (4.0 NI per 1000 PHD). Most NI were gastrointestinal tract infections with 55% caused by rotavirus infection. NI rates were highest between November and March.

Conclusions: A significant part of NI will only be detected if surveillance includes the immediate postdischarge period. Given the strong seasonality of pediatric NI, intensifying hygiene measurements particularly on infant wards and prior to the cold season would be beneficial in reducing NI incidence.

Intervention: Telephone screening followed by telephone interview

Intervention: Telephone screening followed by telephone interview concerning treatment sought for most recent toothache.

Main outcome measure: Whether a pharmacist was consulted for toothache


Results: Interviews were completed for 68.3% of eligible households. One of five respondents consulted a pharmacist regarding toothache pain. No differences were noted among demographic groups other Selleck LDN-193189 than differences related to age. No association was observed between respondents asking for advice from pharmacists and the number of toothaches they experienced during the previous 10 years or the pain level of their most recent toothache; however, an association was seen between the duration of the most recent toothache and the degree Tideglusib in vivo to which the toothache interfered with daily activities. Approximately 90% of respondents adhered to pharmacist advice, while 55.7% reported that the advice helped “”a lot.”"

Conclusion: Pharmacists have an important role to play in alleviating toothache pain, especially among lower-income individuals without ready access to traditional dental services.”
“Purpose of review

New evidence is emerging to address the continued uncertainty regarding the optimal range to target oxygen saturation levels in preterm infants.

Recent findings

A recently published systematic review summarized the existing evidence for currently used oxygen saturation targets

in ATR inhibitor preterm infants and highlighted the paucity of randomized trials addressing this topic. It appears that higher oxygen saturation levels increase the risk of severe retinopathy of prematurity and pulmonary morbidities. However, data regarding the effects of various target ranges on early mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes are lacking. A collaborative group of investigators from five independent randomized trials was established to answer this question definitively. Although the final analysis will not be available until 2014, interim results from four of these trials revealed an increase in early mortality when the lower oxygen saturation range is targeted. At present,

it may be prudent not to target oxygen saturation levels below 90%. Whatever the optimal range, consistently maintaining the newborn’s oxygen saturation levels within target proves an additional challenge for providers. Both technological advancements and optimized patient-caregiver ratios may be useful in achieving targeted oxygen saturation goals.


Defining and maintaining optimal oxygen saturations in preterm infants remains a challenge for clinicians caring for preterm infants. However, ongoing investigative collaborations may soon provide guidance.”
“Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neuroprotective and ameliorating effects of leptin treatment in hypoxic-ischemic injury induced neuronal cell death.


In this study, seven

commercial isolates have been select

In this study, seven

commercial isolates have been selected (soy and whey proteins) and the influence of their primary properties (protein type, protein content, humidity, and ash content) and secondary properties (particle size, shape and tap density) on their compactibility and compressibility were studied. Whey proteins seemed to show a better tabletability than soy proteins. Isolate density and humidity strongly affected proteins compactibility: powders with high density showed very selleck chemicals low compactibility and a decrease of isolate water content strongly lowered powder compactibility. suggesting that liquid bridges may increase protein-protein interactions during compaction. Laser diffraction measurements/ microscopic observations showed that isolate particles would have the same size/shape, consequently, these properties did not show any influence on protein tabletability. At last, surprisingly, no clear relationship between compactibility and compressibility has been showed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”

fabrics were pretreated with calcium and sodium oxalate in acidic and alkaline pH media. The pretreated and untreated fabric samples were then dyed in the same bath with acid dyes by the exhaustion technique. The pretreated fiber sample surfaces were observed using a scanning electron microscope. The color strength and fastness FRAX597 concentration properties of the fabrics were investigated. The results of the study

showed that pretreatment with oxalate derivatives can be used as a means of improving the dyeability of wool fibers. As the dyed, pretreated wool fabrics had higher color strength and fastness results than the untreated wool fabrics, the mechanical properties were affected negatively. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 122: 3440-3445, 2011″
“Metabolic syndrome (MS) is frequent clinical condition in patients with hypertension. Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common form of secondary hypertension. This study was aimed at investigating the prevalence of the MS and its components in the two major forms of PA, in unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral Pinometostat mouse aldosterone overproduction because of idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The diagnosis of the particular form of PA was based on adrenal venous sampling and/or successful surgery confirmed by histopathological examination. We analyzed clinical and laboratory data from 100 patients with PA (50 patients with IHA and 50 patients with APA) and from 90 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Metabolic profiles of patients with bilateral form of PA (because of IHA) were similar to EH, but differed from those in patients with unilateral form of PA (APA).

With this intermediate-term

follow-up there was no clinic

With this intermediate-term

follow-up there was no clinically significant benefit seen for selective regional or nonischemic techniques.”
“Recent studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. We previously reported that intravenous challenge with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) accelerated atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient spontaneously ABT 888 hyperlipidemic (Apoe(shl)) mice. In this study, we investigated whether live cells were required for atherosclerosis induction or whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alone was sufficient to increase atherosclerotic damage. Mice were injected intravenously with live Aa HK1651, heat-killed (H. K.) Aa, or Aa LPS 3 times a week for 3 weeks and were sacrificed at 15 weeks of age. The areas of the aortic sinus that were covered with atherosclerotic

plaques were significantly larger in mice treated with live Aa, H. K. Aa, or Aa LPS compared with vehicle-challenged mice. The order of the extent of atherosclerosis was live Aa > H. K. Aa > Aa LPS > sham. Toll and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor mRNA expression significantly increased in the live Aa, H. K. Aa, and Aa LPS treatment groups. Aa challenge markedly promoted the oxidation of LDL through oxidative stress involving NADPH oxidase- and myeloperoxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. These results suggested that Aa promoted innate immune see more signaling and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and may facilitate atheroma development.”

To evaluate the correlation between an urgency severity scale (USS) based on a voiding diary with detrusor overactivity (DO) in a videourodynamic study in patients with an overactive bladder (OAB). Methods: We Selleckchem BMS 345541 prospectively enrolled 190 consecutive patients with OAB. All patients were assessed using a USS and completed a 3-day voiding diary that recorded urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes and the degree of urgency severity. The highest recorded USS score in the voiding diary was considered as the USS score. A videourodynamic study was performed, and the presence of increased bladder sensation (IBS) or DO was recorded. These clinical findings and videourodynamic data were analyzed. Results: This study enrolled 65 men and 125 women. The mean patient age was 66.4 years (21-88). Among them, 82.6% had urodynamic DO, 7.9% had IBS, and 9.5% had normal urodynamic findings. The prevalence of DO was 50%, 76%, and 94% in patients with a USS 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that OAB wet, high USS and UUI were significantly associated with the presence of DO. Urodynamic DO was present in most patients with OAB wet (94.1%) or USS = 4 (95.5%); however, only 63.9% of OAB dry patients had DO. In the OAB dry patients, 11/25 (44%) with USS 2, 30/42 (71%) with USS 3, and 5/5 (100%) with USS = 4 had DO.

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics [doi: 10 1063/1 3553718]“

(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3553718]“
“Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) BMS202 mouse (poly(NIPAM-co-AA)) microgels with different copolymer compositions were prepared through soap-free emulsion polymerization at 80 degrees C, and 2, 2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) was used as initiator. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) characterization shows that the prepared microgels are regular and smooth and not easy to distort. Result

of (1)H-NMR characterization shows that with increasing of the initial concentration of AA (AA in feed), the AA content in polymer chains increases. The thermal response of microgels latex was investigated by UV-3010 spectrophometer through detecting the transmittance of the latex VX-770 in vitro at different temperature in the range of 190-900 nm. The thermal response of the poly(NIPAM-co-AA) microgels was tested by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results show that with the increase of AA content in polymer chains, the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of microgels latex first decreases and then increases. Still, with increasing of AA in poly(NIPAM-co-AA) microgels, the LCST of microgels first increases and then decreases.

The basic reasons causing the changes of LCST of microgels latex and microgels are interpreted clearly in this article from the perspective of hydrogen bonding interaction. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 121: 3322-3331, 2011″
“Purpose: To evaluate the mammographic features of breast cancer that favor lesion detection with single reading and computer-aided detection (CAD) or with double reading.

Materials and Methods: The Computer Aided Detection Angiogenesis inhibitor Evaluation Trial II study was approved by the ethics committee, and all participants provided written informed consent. A total of 31 057 women were recruited from three screening centers between September 2006 and August 2007. They were randomly allocated to the double reading group, the single reading with CAD group, or the double reading and single reading with CAD group at

a ratio of 1: 1: 28, respectively. In this study, cancers in the women whose mammograms were read with both single reading with CAD and double reading were retrospectively reviewed. The original mammograms were obtained for each case and reviewed by two of three experienced breast radiologists in consensus. The method of detection was noted. The size and predominant mammographic feature of the cancer were recorded, as was the breast density. CAD marking data were reviewed to determine if the cancer had been correctly marked.

Results: A total of 227 cancers were detected in 28 204 women. A total of 170 cases were recalled with both reading regimens. Lesion types were masses (66%), microcalcifications (25%), parenchymal deformities (6%), and asymmetric densities (3%).

002) A highly similar pattern of associations was observed for m

002). A highly similar pattern of associations was observed for men and women. Our data provide new evidence to suggest that low serum albumin is independently associated with increased odds of cognitive impairment in the elderly

“Rotavirus is a ubiquitous infection that is the leading cause of Roscovitine supplier severe diarrhea worldwide. Severe infections are most commonly observed in the first 2 years of life. Rotavirus-induced diarrhea is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates and socioeconomic costs with adverse outcomes particularly prevalent in developing countries. The natural history of rotavirus infection can provide guidance for the development and optimization of an effective vaccine. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that children who acquire natural rotavirus infections develop immunity to subsequent infections, with the protective effect increasing with each natural infection. Natural infections also decrease the severity of any subsequent rotavirus infections. Notably, asymptomatic infections provide protection similar to that induced by symptomatic infections. Data also suggest that the antibody

response to natural infection is heterotypic, and therefore may provide protection against multiple serotypes. These data suggest that the development of a vaccine that produces asymptomatic selleck chemical infection at an optimal time point may provide effective immunity. An LY3039478 mw effective vaccine should mimic protection provided by natural infection and provide protection against the most common rotavirus serotypes tie, G1, G2, G3, G4, G9) and be able to decrease disease severity, reduce hospitalizations, and decrease disease-related costs.”

characteristics and physical properties of 8-10 nm silicon dioxide (SiO2) films formed on Si (100) substrates by use of the nitric acid oxidation of Si method at similar to 120 degrees C have been investigated. The atomic density of the SiO2 layer increases with the HNO3 concentration. Fourier transformed infrared absorption measurements show that the higher the HNO3 concentration, the higher the atomic density of the SiO2 layer. From the Fowler-Nordheim plots, the barrier height at the SiO2/Si interface is found to increase with the HNO3 concentration. The leakage current density flowing through the SiO2 layer decreases with the HNO3 concentration employed for the SiO2 formation. It is concluded that the higher atomic density leads to SiO2 band-gap widening and thus to the higher band discontinuity energy at the SiO2/Si interface, which in turn results in a decrease in the tunneling probability of charge carries through SiO2. The density of oxide fixed charges decreases with an increase in the HNO3 concentration.

Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 sylla

Manual classifications of these vocalizations identified 10 syllable types based on their spectro-temporal features. However, manual classification of mouse syllables

is time consuming and vulnerable to experimenter bias. This study uses an automated cluster analysis to identify acoustically distinct syllable types produced by CBA/CaJ mouse pups, and then compares the results to prior SIS3 manual classification methods. The cluster analysis identified two syllable types, based on their frequency bands, that have continuous frequency-time structure, and two syllable types featuring abrupt frequency transitions. Although cluster analysis computed fewer syllable types than manual classification, the clusters represented well the probability distributions of the acoustic features within syllables. These probability distributions indicate that some of the manually

classified syllable types are not statistically distinct. The characteristics of the four classified clusters were used to generate a Microsoft Excel-based mouse syllable classifier that rapidly categorizes syllables, with over a 90% match, into the syllable types determined by cluster analysis.”
“The high incidence of diarrhea in the population demands a search for new therapeutic options and easy access, mainly from plant-based sources. Leaves and bark of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae) are popularly employed against diarrhea. However, no information was found in the literature about this supposed property of the drug. In this study we evaluated in vivo antidiarrheal activity of stem bark extracts from G. ulmifolia in mice, and in vitro antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus AZD0156 inhibitor JNJ-26481585 concentration aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella flexneri, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using the microdilution method. The n-BuOH semipurified fraction (GU#3) significantly reduced intestinal motility. The extracts did not show antimicrobial activity. G. ulmifolia Lam, had non-specific antidiarrheal, and antimotility activity in the experimental models studied, and could be used as an alternative treatment for non-infectious diarrhea.”

an active polyphenol of the golden spice turmeric, is a highly pleiotropic molecule with the potential to modulate the biological activity of a number of signaling molecules. Traditionally, this polyphenol has been used in Asian countries to treat such human ailments as acne, psoriasis, dermatitis, and rash. Recent studies have indicated that curcumin can target newly identified signaling pathways including those associated with microRNA, cancer stem cells, and autophagy. Extensive research from preclinical and clinical studies has delineated the molecular basis for the pharmaceutical uses of this polyphenol against cancer, pulmonary diseases, neurological diseases, liver diseases, metabolic diseases, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and numerous other chronic diseases.

The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton

The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton PD98059 chemical structure on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk motion of V. convallaria.

With greater drag forces, the contraction distance linearly decreased; the contracted length was close to around 90% of the stretched length. We estimated the drag force on Vorticella in the channel by calculating the force on a sphere in a linear shear flow. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3481777]“
“Chloroformacetone extract of the aerial parts of Euphorbia aellenii Rech. f. (Euphorbiaceae) was investigated for its diterpenoidal constituents. This led to the isolation of two new and one known cyclomyrsinol-type diterpenes 13. The structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D Selleckchem Tubastatin A and 2D 1H and 13C NMR techniques, and in vitro immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by standard proliferation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results showed that all the three compounds were found to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation significantly (p<0.05) at 50g/ml concentration. Among them, compound 2 showed more activity against phytohemagglutinin-activated T-cell proliferation with an IC50 of 40.4 +/- 9.35g/ml.”
“This review presents a systematic perspective on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses. The progress on the development

of micro-optofluidic lenses are illustrated by example from recent literature. The

advantage of micro-optofluidic lenses over solid lens systems is their tunability without the use of large actuators such as servo motors. Depending on the relative orientation of light path and the substrate surface, micro-optofluidic lenses Staurosporine manufacturer can be categorized as in-plane or out-of-plane lenses. However, this review will focus on the tunability of the lenses and categorizes them according to the concept of tunability. Micro-optofluidic lenses can be either tuned by the liquid in use or by the shape of the lens. Micro-optofluidic lenses with tunable shape are categorized according to the actuation schemes. Typical parameters of micro-optofluidic lenses reported recently are compared and discussed. Finally, perspectives are given for future works in this field. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3460392]“
“Two new ent-3,4-seco-labdane diterpenoids, methylcallicarpate (1) and callicarpic acid (2), were isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora Hook et Arn. Their structures and relative configurations were established by analysis of spectroscopic data. Their absolute configurations were assigned by the application of the CD technique for the first time among the ent-3,4-seco-labdane-type diterpenes.”
“Immunoassay is one of the important applications of microfluidic chips and many methodologies were reported for decreasing sample/reagent volume, shortening assay time, and so on.

In the antibacterial activity, a very low response was demonstrat

In the antibacterial activity, a very low response was demonstrated.”
“There is controversy regarding the appropriate proximal fusion level for adult degenerative scoliosis. Ideally,

the horizontal vertebra is chosen for the upper instrumented vertebra to create a balanced spine. Fusion to T10 is recommended to prevent junctional problems at the proximal adjacent segment. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the optimal proximal fusion level for adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis.

Fifty-one patients with adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis (mean age 64.6 years) who underwent posterior instrumentation were analyzed after a minimum 2-year Vactosertib price follow-up. The average number of levels fused was 5.9 segments (range 3-9) with distal fusion at L5 in 30 patients and S1 in 21 patients. The upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) ranged from T9 to L2. According to the relationship between UIV, horizontal vertebra (HV) and upper end vertebra (UEV), the patients were divided into three groups in the coronal plane: Group HV (UIV = HV or above); Group HV-UEV (UIV = between TH-302 purchase HV and UEV); and Group UEV (UIV = UEV or below). In the sagittal plane; the patients were divided into Group T9-10 (UIV =

T9-10), Group T11-12 and Group L1-2.

Proximal adjacent segment disease (ASD) was identified in 13 (25 %) out of 51 patients, including junctional kyphosis (n = 5), compression fractures (n = 4), progression of disc wedging (n = 2) and spinal stenosis (n = 2). Group UEV had more ASD (9 of 16 patients) compared to Group HV (2 of 21 patients) and Group HV-UEV (2 of 14 patients). It appeared that neutral vertebra could be a criterion for the selection of UIV in the coronal plane. Among the groups divided in the sagittal plane, proximal ASD was found in 47 % of 19 patients in Group L1-2, which was notably higher

than 9 % in Group T9-10 and 20 % in Group T11-12.

Proximal adjacent segment disease developed more commonly when the proximal fusion stopped at the UEV or below in adult degenerative lumbar scoliosis. UIV must be above UEV in the coronal SBC-115076 plane. Fusion to T11 or T12 was acceptable when UIV was above UEV, since there was no significant difference in the rate of proximal adjacent segment between fusion to T10 and fusion to T11 or T12.”
“The saponified petroleum ether extract (SPE) of the Annona reticulata L. bark were studied for fatty acid composition by GC-MS analysis. Six fatty acids amounting 86.68% of the total contents were identified. The composition of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid was 22.10 % and 6458 %, respectively. SPE at the doses of 125, 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight showed significant central as well as peripheral analgesic, along with anti-inflammatory activity.”
“Predictors of marked improvement versus failure to improve following surgery for adult scoliosis have not been identified.

The 5-year

overall survival rates of patients with ovaria

The 5-year

overall survival rates of patients with ovarian surface epithelial-stromal tumors were 92% in stage I, 75% in stage II, 50% in stage III and 39% in stage IV.”
“Objective. The presence of a tertiary Gleason grade (TGG) pattern 4 or 5 in radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens has been reported with adverse pathology and a higher biochemical relapse rate after RP. This study investigated the impact of a TGG pattern 4 or 5 on biochemical and pathological outcome in men operated with RP. Material and methods. The study reviewed 151 consecutive cases treated at the hospital between 1985 and 2006; 148 were included Prexasertib mw in the study. All prostatectomy specimens were re-examined by a genitourinary pathologist and among others parameters the presence of TGG pattern 4 or 5 was recorded. The hospital files were examined retrospectively for clinical follow-up data. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse was defined as two subsequent rising measurements above 0.20 ng/ml. The influence of a TGG pattern 4 or 5 on prognosis was assessed INCB024360 in a Cox proportional hazards regression model controlling for pathological stage, surgical margin (SM) status, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and extraprostatic extension (EPE). Results. Fifty-six patients (38%) experienced PSA relapse during follow-up. Twenty-one patients (58%) with a TGG pattern 4 or 5 had a biochemical relapse compared with

35 patients (31%) without TGG pattern 4 or 5. In the Cox regression model, TGG pattern 4 or 5 was an independent predictor

of biochemical failure (p = 0.020). Conclusions. In patients undergoing RP the presence of a TGG pattern 4 or 5 is an independent predictor for biochemical relapse. Consequently, the RP specimens should routinely be investigated for TGG pattern 4 or 5.”
“Purpose of review

To identify the recent data regarding prevalence, incidence, survival, and risk factors for systemic sclerosis (SSc) and to compare these data to previously published findings.

Recent findings

SSc disease see more occurrence data are now available for Argentina, Taiwan, and India and continue to show wide variation across geographic regions. The survival rate is negatively impacted by older age of onset, male sex, scleroderma renal crisis, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, cancer, and antitopoisomerase and anti-U1 antibodies. It appears that silica exposure confers an increased risk for developing scleroderma, but this exposure accounts for a very small proportion of male patients. Smoking is not associated with increased SSc susceptibility. Malignancies are reported in scleroderma at an increased rate, but the magnitude of this risk and the type of cancer vary among reports.


Prevalence and incidence of SSc appears to be greater in populations of European ancestry and lower in Asian groups.