(C) 2011 Elsevier
Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“The development of lab-on-chip devices is expected to dramatically change biochemical analyses, allowing for a notable increase of processing quality and throughput, provided the induced chemical reactions are well controlled. In this work, we investigate the impact of local acoustic mixing to promote or accelerate such biochemical reactions, such as antibody grafting on activated surfaces. During microarray building, the spotting mode leads to low efficiency in the ligand grafting and heterogeneities which limits its performances. To improve the transfer rate, we induce a hydrodynamic flow in the spotted droplet to disrupt SB203580 the steady state during antibody grafting. To prove that acoustic mixing increases the antibody transfer rate to the biochip surface, we have used a Love-wave sensor allowing for real-time monitoring of the biological reaction for different operating conditions (with or without mixing). An analysis of the impact of the proposed mixing on grafting kinetics is proposed and finally
checked in the case of antibody-antigen combination. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3576113]“
“Background: In Switzerland 5% to 10% of hospitalized adults acquire nosocomial infections (NI) but few data are available in children. Most former studies on NI in hospitalized children analyzed specific units or pathogens and neglected the postdischarge period. We aimed to prospectively assess viral NI occurring during and shortly after hospitalization in children.
Methods: Prospective CA3 Stem Cells & Wnt inhibitor surveillance was performed during a 24-month period. Electronic standardized questionnaires were completed for
each patient by physicians during hospital stay. On a ward-based rotational buy Elacridar schedule, follow-up information was obtained from a subset of patients 1 week after hospital discharge. NI were defined using CDC recommendations.
Results: Overall, 6250 patients (34,608 patient hospitalization days, PHD) were enrolled and 1272 patients were recruited for postdischarge surveillance. Mean hospitalization duration was 5 days. Fifty-two (0.8%) patients acquired 54 viral NI during hospitalization and 12 patients (1.1%) acquired 12 viral NI after hospital discharge (NI incidence: 1.9 per 1000 PHD including follow-up period). NI rate in infants was higher compared with children >12 months old (2.0% vs. 0.8%; P < 0.05) and the infant ward also had the highest incidence (4.0 NI per 1000 PHD). Most NI were gastrointestinal tract infections with 55% caused by rotavirus infection. NI rates were highest between November and March.
Conclusions: A significant part of NI will only be detected if surveillance includes the immediate postdischarge period. Given the strong seasonality of pediatric NI, intensifying hygiene measurements particularly on infant wards and prior to the cold season would be beneficial in reducing NI incidence.