As stated by Brooks, ARIMA performed well and robustly in modeling linear and stationary time series . However, the applications of ARIMA models were limited because they assumed linear relationships among time-lagged variables and they could not capture the structure of nonlinear relationships . The nonparametric purchase PS-341 regression models have been applied to forecast transportation demand. However, among these nonparametric
techniques, KNN method has been rarely adopted in forecast transportation demand. Robinson and Polak proposed the use of the KNN technique to estimate urban link travel time with single loop inductive loop detector data, and the optimized KNN model was found to provide more accurate estimates than other urban link travel time methods . Neural network model has been frequently adopted to predict. In , the time-delay recurrent neural network for temporal correlations and prediction and multiple recurrent neural networks were described. And the best performance is attained by the time-delay recurrent neural network. In , a hybrid EMD-BPN forecast approach which combined empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and backpropagation neural networks (BPN) was developed to predict the short-term passenger flow in metro systems. In ,
the forecast model of railway short-term passenger flow based on BP neural network was established based on analyzing the principle of BP neural network and time sequence characteristics of railway passenger flow. In , a neural network model was introduced
that combines the prediction from single neural network predictors according to an adaptive and heuristic credit assignment algorithm based on the theory of conditional probability and Bayes’ rule. In , Chen and Grant-Muller reported the application and performance of an alternative neural computing algorithm which involves “sequential or dynamic learning” of the traffic flow process. This indicated the potential suitability of dynamic neural networks with traffic flow data. In , Li and Chong-Xin employed chaos theory into forecasting. Delay time and embedding dimension are calculated to reconstruct the phase space and determine the structure of artificial neural network, and the load data of Shanxi province power grid of China is used to show that the model is more effective than classical AV-951 standard BP neural network model. Support vector machine technique has also been adopted in forecast. In , a modified version of a pattern recognition technique known as support vector machine for regression to forecast the annual average daily traffic was presented. Hu et al. utilized the theory and method of support vector machine regression and established the regressive model based on the least square support vector machine.