A pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using either a random-eff

A pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated using either a random-effect or a fixed-effect model. A total of 16 papers were identified. Among the 11 factors studied, five symptoms demonstrated an increased risk for SDD, including bleeding [OR: 13.617; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.281, 56.508], vomiting/nausea (OR: 1.692; 95% CI: 1.256, 2.280), abdominal pain (OR: 2.278; 95% CI: 1.631, 3.182), skin rashes (OR: 2.031; 95% CI: 1.269, 3.250), and hepatomegaly (OR: 4.751; 95% CI: 1.769, 12.570). Among the four bleeding-related symptoms including hematemesis, melena,

gum bleeding, and epistaxis, only Selleckchem PHA-739358 hematemesis (OR: 6.174; 95% CI: 2.66, 14.334; P smaller than 0.001) and melena (OR: 10.351; 95% CI: 3.065, Sapitinib 34.956; P smaller than 0.001) were significantly associated with SDD. No significant associations with SDD were found for

gender, lethargy, retroorbital pain, diarrhea, or tourniquet test, whereas headache appeared protective (OR: 0.555; 95% CI: 0.455, 0.676). The meta-analysis suggests that bleeding (hematemesis/melena), vomiting/nausea, abdominal pain, skin rashes, and hepatomegaly may predict the development of SDD in patients with DF, while headache may predict otherwise.”
“It has been suggested that the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) could be implicated in facial emotion expression and recognition, especially for laughter/happiness. To test this hypothesis, in a single-blind, randomized crossover study, we investigated the impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on performances of 18 healthy participants during a facial emotion recognition task. Using a neuronavigation system based on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of each participant, TMS (5 pulses, 10 Hz) was delivered over the pre-SMA or the vertex (control condition) in an event-related fashion after the presentation of happy, fear, and

angry faces. Compared with performances during vertex stimulation, we observed that TMS applied JQ-EZ-05 in vivo over the left pre-SMA specifically disrupted facial happiness recognition (FHR). No difference was observed between the 2 conditions neither for fear and anger recognition nor for reaction times (RI). Thus, interfering with pre-SMA activity with event-related TMS after stimulus presentation produced a selective impairment in the recognition of happy faces. These findings provide new insights into the functional implication of the pre-SMA in FHR, which may rely on the mirror properties of pre-SMA neurons.”
“Chronic kidney disease is often not associated with significant symptoms or abnormalities in common laboratory test results. Diagnosis is supposedly facilitated by calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from serum creatinine. A reference range GFR. however, does not exclude renal disease, because renal disease causes the subsequent decrease of renal function.

g , special wards for children and their parents, children of men

g., special wards for children and their parents, children of mentally ill parents), in medical teaching and postgraduate education as well as representative functions in societal AZD7762 solubility dmso and political issues.”
“Objective. To investigate the effect of differential coping designs on the stress distributions of an all-ceramic crown on, the upper central incisor under varying loads.\n\nMethods. 3D finite element models with three differential coping designs of an all-ceramic crown on, the upper central incisor were constructed using CAD (computer aided design) software. The coping,

designs included: CC (conventional coping), MCL (modified coping without veneer coverage in lingual, surface) and MCM (modified coping without veneer coverage in lingual margin). Loading that, simulated the maximum bite force (200 N) was applied to the crown at differential

locations (incisal, edge, lingual fossa and lingual margin). The first principal stress values for the full crown were, calculated and expressed as stress intensity in MPa.\n\nResults. The simulations showed the stress distribution tendencies of the all-ceramic crown with, differential coping materials were similar. The stress concentration was found in the cervical region, coping/veneer layer interface and the loading area for both the coping layer and the veneer layer. Maximal stress value was observed in the loading area. Stress values varied SB203580 in vitro for the three types of, coping designs; however, compared with CC and MCM, MCL exhibited the lowest stress values.\n\nSigncance. Modified coping without PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 research buy veneer coverage in the lingual side (MCL) proved promising in, preventing all-ceramic crown failures that originate from veneering porcelain, especially under, abnormal occlusal force. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd on

behalf of Academy of Dental Materials. All rights reserved.”
“Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urocortin 1 (Ucn1) play a role in the stress response. The CRF-producing paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), oval bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov) and central amygdala (CeA), and the Ucn1-expressing non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus (npEW) all possess AVP receptors. We hypothesized that AVP is involved in the response of these four brain centers to acute physiological (ether) stress. To test this hypothesis, we studied AVP-deficient Brattleboro (BB) rats using quantitative immunocytochemistry. First, we showed that non-stressed wild-type (WT) and BB rats did not differ from each other in Fos contents, indicating similar (immediate early) gene expression activity, but that in BB rats CRF contents were lower in the PVN and higher in the CeA. Second, we found that stress induced Fos response in the PVN, CeA and npEW with strengths different for each center, but similar for BB and WT rats.

Improvements in both CABG (including total arterial revasculariza

Improvements in both CABG (including total arterial revascularization, off-pump CABG and no-touch’ graft harvesting)

and PCI (including newer-generation stents, adjunctive pharmacotherapy and intracoronary imaging) mean that they will continue to challenge each other in the future. A heart team’ approach is strongly recommended to select an evidence-based, yet individualized, revascularization strategy for all patients with complex coronary artery disease. Finally, optimal medical therapy is important for all patients with coronary artery disease, regardless of the mode of revascularization.”
“Objectives: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and extent of preventive care in Gullah African Americans with a high click here familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Between 1995 and 2003, 1321 Gullah African Americans with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus from the South Carolina Sea Islands

consented to and enrolled in the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR). A cross-sectional analysis of cardiometabolic risk, preventive care, and self-reported LY3023414 in vitro cardiovascular disease was conducted. Results: Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were high and vascular disease was prevalent. Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus, the mean disease duration was 10.5 years; approximately one-third reported reduced vision or blindness; and

bigger than 80% reported numbness, pain, or burning in their feet. Preventive diabetes carewas limited, with smaller than 60%, smaller than 25%, and smaller than 40% seeing an ophthalmologist, podiatrist, and dentist, respectively, within the past year. Only 54.4% of women and 39.3% of men reported daily glucose 17-AAG chemical structure monitoring. Conclusions: As the largest existing study of Gullah individuals, our study offers insight into not only the level of cardiovascular risk in this population but also the pathophysiological mechanisms central to ancestral differences in cardiometabolic risk in the broader African American population.”
“Background The propofol concentration during constant infusion is affected by a change in cardiac output, but the effect of this change on remifentanil, which is frequently used in combination with propofol, is unclear. Methods Ten swine were anaesthetised through inhalation of isoflurane and maintained with 1.5% isoflurane. After infusion of remifentanil (0.5g/kg/min) and propofol (6mg/kg/h after 2mg/kg bolus infusion) for 60min (baseline 1), cardiac output was increased by continuous infusion of dobutamine and termination of isoflurane (high cardiac output state). Dobutamine infusion was then stopped, 1.5% isoflurane was restarted, and cardiac output was allowed to return to baseline (baseline 2). Finally, cardiac output was decreased by administration of 3% isoflurane (low cardiac output state).

Normalizing to M-wave produced the greatest spatial variability (

Normalizing to M-wave produced the greatest spatial variability (45% greater than unnormalized EMG) and increased inter-participant variability SU5402 by 70%. Unnormalized bipolar LG sEMG may provide misleading results about representative muscle activity in walking due to spatial variability. For the peak value and MVC approaches, different electrode locations likely have minor effects on normalized results, whereas electrode location should be carefully considered when normalizing walking

sEMG data to maximal M-waves. (C) 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heart failure is a leading cause of mortality in South Asians. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unknown(1). Cardiomyopathies due to sarcomeric mutations are a major monogenic cause for heart failure (MIM600958). Here, we describe a deletion of 25 bp in the gene encoding cardiac myosin binding protein C (MYBPC3) that is associated with heritable cardiomyopathies and an increased risk of heart failure in Indian populations (initial study OR 5.3 (95% CI = 2.3-13), P = 2 x 10(-6); replication study OR = 8.59 (3.19-25.05), P = 2 x 10(-8); combined OR = 6.99 (3.68-13.57), P = 4 x 10(-11)) and that disrupts cardiomyocyte structure in vitro.

Its prevalence was found to be high (similar to 4%) in populations of Indian subcontinental ancestry. The finding of a common risk factor implicated in South Asian subjects with cardiomyopathy JAK inhibitor will help in identifying and counseling individuals predisposed to cardiac diseases in this region.”
“A specific mutation (Delta E302/303) in the torsinA gene underlies most cases of dominantly inherited early-onset torsion dystonia. This mutation causes the protein to aggregate and form intracellular inclusion bodies in cultured cells and animal models. Co-expression of the wildtype and mutant proteins resulted in the redistribution of the wildtype protein from the endoplasmic reticulum to inclusion bodies in cultured HEK293 cells, and this was associated with increased

interaction between the two proteins. Expression of Delta E302/303 but not wildtype torsinA in primary postnatal midbrain neurons resulted in the formation of intracellular inclusion bodies, predominantly in dopaminergic neurons. Tyrosine https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SB-202190.html hydroxylase, was sequestered in these inclusions and this process was mediated by increased protein-protein interaction between mutant torsinA and tyrosine hydroxylase. Analysis in an inducible neuroblastoma cell culture model demonstrated altered tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the presence of the mutant but not wildtype torsinA protein. Our results suggest that the interaction of tyrosine hydroxylase and mutant torsinA may contribute to the phenotype and reported dopaminergic dysfunction in torsinA-mediated dystonia. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

V All rights reserved “
“Changes in cellular lipid metaboli

V. All rights reserved.”
“Changes in cellular lipid metabolism are a common feature in most solid tumors, which occur already in early stages of the tumor progression. However, it remains unclear if the tumor-specific lipid changes can be detected at the level of systemic lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to perform comprehensive analysis of lipids in breast cancer patient serum samples. Lipidomic profiling using an established analytical platform was performed in two cohorts of breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The analyses were performed for 142 patients before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the results before chemotherapy

were validated in an independent cohort of 194 patients. The analyses revealed that in general the tumor characteristics are not reflected in the serum samples. However, there was an association of specific triacylglycerols SB203580 (TGs) in patients’ response to chemotherapy. These TGs containing mainly oleic acid (C18:1) were found in lower levels in those patients showing pathologic PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitor 3 complete response before receiving chemotherapy. Some of these TGs were also associated with estrogen receptor status and overall or disease-free survival of the patients. The results suggest that the altered serum levels of oleic acid in breast cancer

patients are associated with their response to chemotherapy. What’s new? Up to 25% of breast tumors show pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Identifying biomarkers that could predict pCR could help select those patients who would most benefit from therapy. Knowing that blood oleic acid concentration is increased in cancer patients and associated with breast cancer predisposition, here the authors explored how serum lipidomic profiles may be associated with pCR in patients receiving therapy. Lowered concentrations of oleic acid in serum triacylglycerols were found to be associated with pCR in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This highlights the importance of systemic lipid metabolism status in response to chemotherapy.”

Rabusertib manufacturer is ubiquitously expressed in patients with head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and is associated with poor survival and chemotherapy resistance. Sepantronium bromide (YM155) is a selective survivin suppressant that exhibits potent antitumor activities by inducing apoptosis and autophagy in various types of cancer. However, the curative effects and underlying mechanisms of YM155 in HNSCC remain unclear. This study showed that survivin overexpression positively correlated with p-S6, p-Rb and LAMP2 but negatively correlated with the autophagic marker LC3 in human HNSCC tissues. In vitro studies revealed that YM155 triggered apoptosis of HNSCC cells in mitochondria and death receptor-dependent manner. The treatment also significantly enhanced autophagy by upregulating Beclin1, which led to cell death.

To achieve the desired structural properties of the graft, most i

To achieve the desired structural properties of the graft, most importantly a diametric compliance of 6%/100 mmHg, finite element methods and genetic algorithms were used in an integrated approach to identify the mechanical properties of an adventitial fabric layer that were required to optimally complement an intimal/medial polyurethane layer with interconnected

porosity of three different size classes. The models predicted a compliance of 16.0, 19.2, and 31.5%/100 selleckchem mmHg for the non-reinforced grafts and 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0%/100 mmHg for the fabric-reinforced grafts. The latter, featuring fabrics manufactured according to the required non-linear mechanical characteristics numerically predicted, exhibited an in vitro compliance of 2.1 +/- 0.8, 3.0 +/- 2.4, and 4.0 +/- 0.7%/100 mmHg. The combination

of finite element methods and genetic algorithms was shown to be able to successfully optimize the mechanical design of the composite graft. The method offers potential for the application to alternative concepts of modular vascular grafts and the incorporation of tissue ingrowth and biodegradation.”
“Basement membrane (BM) is a complex network of interacting proteins, including type IV collagen (Col IV) that acts as a scaffold that stabilizes the physical structures of tissues and regulates cellular processes. In the mammary gland, check details BM is a continuous deposit that separates epithelial cells from stroma, and its degradation is related with an increased potential for invasion and metastasis. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells are transdifferentiated to one mesenchymal state, and is a normal process during embryonic development, tissue remodeling and wound healing, as well as it has been implicated

during cancer progression. In breast cancer cells, native Col IV induces migration and gelatinases secretion. However, the role of native Col IV on MG-132 cost the EMT process in human mammary epithelial cells remains to be investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate that native Col IV induces down-regulation of E-cadherin expression, accompanied with an increase of Snail1, Snail2 and Sip1 transcripts. Native Col IV also induces an increase in N-cadherin and vimentin expression, an increase of MMP-2 secretion, the activation of FAK and NFKB, cell migration and invasion in MCF10A cells. In summary, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, that native Col IV induces an EMT-like process in MCF10A human mammary non-tumorigenic epithelial cells. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The present study was designed to evaluate the expression and subcellular distribution of the familial acute myelogenous leukemia-related factor (FAMLF). A 14-amino acid epitope of the predicted open reading frame of the FAMLF gene was identified using bioinformatics. This polypeptide was synthesized, conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and was subsequently used to produce antibodies.

Additionally attenuation in the expression of MOR(1) mRNA was ob

Additionally. attenuation in the expression of MOR(1) mRNA was observed, but statistically significant only in animals receiving the higher dose. Neither the expression levels of ADRA(1D) nor GABA(A) mRNA were altered. Interestingly, the harmful effects of lactational exposure to B[alpha]P on behaviour and cognitive function were still found despite a long post-weaning period. Young mice whose mothers were

exposed to B[alpha]P displayed a disinhibition behaviour towards the aversive spaces of the elevated plus maze. Furthermore, a significant increase of spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze was observed, but only in young mice whose mothers 3-MA supplier were orally exposed to the lower dose of B[alpha]P. Our results suggest a close link between the neurobiological change highlighted in pups’ brain and the different behavioural disturbances observed during postnatal development period until young adult stage. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Endoscopic endoluminal radiofrequency ablation is achieving increasing acceptance as a mode of eliminating Barrett’s metaplasia and, thus, reducing the risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is believed that reducing exposure of the esophageal epithelium to acid is essential to achieve

long-term ablation of Barrett’s esophagus. However, it is unclear whether use of proton pump inhibitors or antireflux operations are more effective to accomplish this goal.\n\nAll patients who underwent endoscopic endoluminal check details radiofrequency ablation with the BARRx device (BARRx Medical, Sunnyvale, CA) were reviewed for date of initial ablation, length of Barrett’s epithelium, presence or performance of Nissen fundoplication, all follow-up endoscopy and treatment, and posttreatment biopsy results. Patients were categorized by presence of Nissen fundoplication and presence of Barrett’s

metaplasia or dysplasia by biopsy at least 12 months following ablation and at last endoscopic follow-up. Data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U-test.\n\nOf 77 patients ablated, 47 had documented endoscopic follow-up at 12 months or longer following the ablation. LY3023414 manufacturer Of these, 19 patients had Nissen fundoplication before, at the same time, or after ablation. Median length of Barrett’s epithelium, with interquartile range (IQR), was 3 (2-12) cm in patients with fundoplication compared with 3 (2-7) cm without fundoplication (P = NS). Median follow-up was 15 (12-24) months in fundoplication patients compared with 12.5 (12-17) months without (P = NS). One of 19 patients with fundoplication had persistent or recurrent Barrett’s epithelium, compared with 7 of 28 without fundoplication (P = 0.03). Of patients without fundoplication, those who had persistent or recurrent Barrett’s had median Barrett’s length of 10 cm (6-12 cm) compared with 3 cm (2-5 cm) in patients who had ablated Barrett’s (P = 0.03).

A look-up table of albedo, temperature difference and ATI for dif

A look-up table of albedo, temperature difference and ATI for different sea waters with or without natural oil seepage was constructed. These were then used as prior knowledge to enclose the possible signatures of natural oil seepage in SYS. Our results show that there are some signatures of natural oil seepage learn more in the study area in SYS. Compared with SST, ATI was more sensitive to the signature of natural oil seepage. The reason for this might be that the temperature difference was used in the calculation of the ATI, which decreased the influence of the SST accuracy on ATI values.”
“A highly accurate motion segmentation technique for time-varying

mesh (TVM) is presented. In conventional approaches, motion of the objects was analyzed using shape feature vectors extracted from TVM CH5424802 research buy frames. This was because it was very difficult to locate and track feature points in the objects in the 3D space due to the fact that the number of vertices and connection varies each frame. In this study, we developed an algorithm to analyze the objects’ motion in the 3D space using the spherical registration based on the iterative closest-point algorithm. Rough motion tracking is conducted and the degree of motion is robustly calculated by this method.

Although the approach is straightforward, much better motion segmentation results than the conventional approaches are obtained by yielding such high precision and recall rates as 95% and 92% on average. Copyright (C) 2009 T. Yamasaki and K. Aizawa.”
“This paper is concerned with

the analysis of clustered data from selleck chemicals developmental toxicity studies with mixed responses, i.e., where each member of the cluster has binary and continuous outcomes. A copula-based random effects model is proposed that accounts for associations between binary and/or continuous outcomes within clusters, including the intrinsic association between the mixed outcomes for the same subject. The approach allows the adoption of flexible distributions for the mixed outcomes as well as for the random effects. The model includes the correlated probit model of Gueorguieva and Agresti (2001) and the generalized linear mixed models of Faes et al. (2008), and Faes, Geys, and Catalano (2009) as special cases. Maximum likelihood estimation of our model parameters is implemented using standard software such as PROC NLMIXED in SAS. The proposed methodology is motivated by and illustrated using a developmental toxicity study of ethylene glycol in mice. This article has supplementary material online.”
“Paratuberculosis (Johne’s diseases) is responsible for massive economic losses to dairy industry, both in the industrially advanced as well as in the developing countries. To detect its occurrence in cattle and buffaloes locally, blood and tissue samples from clinically weak and grossly suspected slaughtered animals were collected from two abattoirs of Jhang, municipal area, Pakistan.

On the other hand, pectin based beads gave significantly lower ce

On the other hand, pectin based beads gave significantly lower cell concentration in the growth medium for the initial fermentation

cycles when compared to the alginate beads. In conclusion, pectin was found to be potential encapsulation material for probiotic cell production owing to its stability and favourable microenvironment for cell growth. (C) 2010, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.”
“The GABA transporter-1 (GAT1) is a prototypical protein of the synaptic specialization. Export of GAT1 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is contingent on its interaction with the COPII (coatomer protein-II) coat subunit Sec24D. Here we show that silencing all four Sec24 isoforms strongly inhibits transport selleck of GAT1 to the cell surface. In contrast, transport of GAT1-RL/AS, a mutant that is deficient in Sec24D recruitment, selleck chemical was not inhibited, suggesting a nonconventional, COPII-independent pathway. However, ARFGAP1 bound directly to the C terminus of both GAT1-RL/AS and wild-type GAT1. Surface expression of GAT1-RL/AS involved ARFGAP1. GAT1-RL/AS appeared to bypass the ER-Golgi-intermediate compartment, but its pathway to the plasma membrane still involved passage through the Golgi. Thus, the GAT1-RL/AS mutant allowed to test whether COPII-dependent ER-export is required for correct sorting of GAT1 to the axon terminal in neuronal cells. In contrast to wild-type GAT1, GAT1-RL/AS failed to be specifically enriched at the

tip of neurite extensions of CAD. a cells (a neuroblastoma cell line that can be differentiated into a neuron-like phenotype) and in the axon terminals of hippocampal neurons. These findings indicate that correct sorting to the axon is contingent on ER export via the COPII machinery and passage through the ER-Golgi-intermediate compartment.”
“Background. Identifying prodromal Staurosporine features that predate the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) may enable the prevention of BD and aid early intervention.

This review addresses two key questions : Is there a bipolar prodrome? And, if there is, what are its characteristic features ?\n\nMethod. A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO) supplemented by hand searches was used to identify studies of symptoms preceding the onset of BD.\n\nResults. Fifty-nine studies were identified, of which 14 met inclusion criteria. Symptoms can predate the onset of BD by months to years and can be categorized as attenuated forms of BD symptoms, general symptoms common to a range of mental disorders, and personality traits, particularly cyclothymia. Two studies provided sufficient data to enable sensitivity and specificity to be calculated. Specificity of several of the features was high (>90%) but sensitivity was generally low (all <60%). We propose a model based on the findings in the studies reviewed to illustrate the potential trajectory to BD and the points at which it may be possible to intervene.\n\nConclusions.

Conclusion: We found lower plasma citrulline and arginine levels

Conclusion: We found lower plasma citrulline and arginine levels in preterm infants

with NEC. Further studies are needed to determine most appropriate levels to predict recovery and prognosis of MLN2238 NEC, and treatment options with these amino acids in preterm infants. (C) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“We describe a technique to manage dense cataract cases After a capsulorhexis of 6.0 to 7.0 mm diameter has been created, the phaco tip is inserted into the nucleus centrally and high vacuum is used to lift the nucleus and elevate it with a tilt to protrude outside the capsular bag distally The chopper is used to segment the nucleus centripetally, starting from the lens equator or just behind, without applying stress to the capsular bag or zonules Further phacoemulsification is maintained by holding the nucleus centrally and chopping it into smaller triangular sectoral pieces. In this horizontal chopping technique, which is done just outside the capsular bag, grasping the nucleus in the center and elevating it with high vacuum instead of depressing one edge of the nucleus to elevate the other edge prevents additional stress to the capsule and zonules.”
“Functional magnetic resonance click here imaging (fMRI) of the human spinal cord has revealed

important details of activity involved with innocuous sensory stimuli, including the primary input to ipsilateral dorsal gray matter and activity in bilateral ventral gray matter regions. The latter is hypothesized to reflect descending modulation from the brainstem and cortex. Here, the functions corresponding to these areas of activity are investigated by varying the temperature of innocuous thermal stimuli, and the order they are

presented, across repeated fMRI experiments in the spinal cord and brainstem. Group results and connectivity analyses reveal that the ipsilateral ATM/ATR inhibitor clinical trial dorsal gray matter (dGM), the primary site of sensory input, also receives inhibitory input from the rostral ventromedial medulla and the locus coeruleus, two components of the brainstem opiate analgesia system. Ipsilateral ventral gray matter (vGM) receives input from the ipsilateral dGM and inhibitory input from the pontine reticular formation, which is involved with coordination of movements by modulation of ventral horn cells. Contralateral vGM regions appear to receive input from only the ipsilateral dGM in these studies. These results provide an unprecedented view of details of human spinal cord function and descending modulation, and have important implications for assessment of the effects of spinal cord trauma and disease by means of fMRI. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives To describe the risk factors associated with injuries resulting from physical education (PE), leisure time physical activity (leisure time PA) and sports in 9-12-year-old children.\n\nDesign Prospective cohort study.\n\nSetting Primary schools.