Squamous cell carcinoma consisted in a neoplastic growth of squamous epithelia with different grades of differentiation. Adenocarcinoma consisted of atypical tubular/cystic glands with abundant extra-cellular mucins (Figure 1). Consistently with previous studies
[18, 27, 29], we did not consider an autonomous group of “”atypical”" epithelial lesions. In fact, such phenotypical alterations are inconsistently described by the current international literature and their negligible PRI-724 molecular weight prevalence in our study represents the rationale of including them among non-cancer lesions. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) Cdx2 immunostain (anti-mouse-Cdx2 antibody, dilution 1:10; BioGenex Laboratories Inc., San Ramon, CA) was applied on 4-μm tissue sections. In all cases, a standardized ABC method was used, implemented on the Ventana Benchmark XT system (Touchstone, AZ). Appropriate positive (mouse colon)
and negative (mouse spleen) controls were always run concurrently. Cdx2 IHC expression was assessed negative (no immunostaining or sparse Cdx2-stained nuclei in less than 5% of the cells) or positive (nuclear immunoreaction in 5% or more of the cells). Statistical analysis Differences seen during the course of the experiment in terms of the incidence of pre-neoplastic/neoplastic lesions and/or overall Cdx2 staining (defined as the percentage of Cdx2-positive cases amongst the different histological categories) were IKK inhibitor evaluated using the modified Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test for trend. Differences were considered statistically this website significant when p < 0.05. All statistical analyses were performed with STATA software (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas). Results Pathology (gross
and histology) Three main types of gross lesion were encountered, i.e. reddened flat mucosa (at both gastric and esophageal sites), ulcers, and protruding and/or nodular lesions. The red mucosa was seen in the esophagus proximal to the EGDA (proximal stomach and distal esophagus), whereas both ulcers and protruding and/or nodular lesions were always located close to the anastomosis. All gross abnormalities were Fludarabine chemical structure sampled for histological assessment. The histological lesions detected in the 3 groups of animals are summarized in Table 1 and Figure 1. All rats had reflux (erosive or non-erosive) esophagitis proximal to the anastomosis. Mucosal ulcers were located in the middle/lower thirds of the esophagus in 15/22 (68.2%) animals in Group A; 14/22 (63.6%) in Group B and 6/20 (30%) in Group C. Regenerative/hyperplastic changes were also identified (Group A = 10/22 [45.5%]; Group B = 8/22 [36.4%], Group C = 10/20 [50.0%]). None of the animals in Group A revealed any intestinal metaplasia (IM) and only 2 cases of MLE were seen (9.1%; both located close to the EGDA).