Whereas the earlier inhibitory peptides are highly specific, we believe that peptides targeting additional interactions between PKC and selective substrates will generate even more selective tools that regulate different functions of individual isozymes. Here, we discuss the methodologies
and applications for identifying selective regulators of PKC.”
“Error processing is associated with distinct event-related potential components (ERPs), i.e. the error-related negativity (ERN) which occurs within approximately 150 ms and is typically more pronounced than the correct-response negativity (CRN), and the error positivity (Pe) emerging from about 200 to 400 ms after an erroneous response. The short latency of the ERN suggests that the internal error monitoring system acts on rapidly available selleckchem central information such as an efference copy buy Panobinostat signal rather than slower peripheral feedback The cerebellum has been linked to an internal forward-model which enables online performance monitoring by predicting the sensory consequences of actions, most probably by making use
of efference copies. In the present study it was hypothesized that the cerebellum is involved in the fast evaluation of saccadic response accuracy as reflected by the ERN. Error processing on an antisaccade task was investigated in eight patients with focal vascular lesions to the cerebellum and check details 22 control subjects using ERPs. While error rates were comparable between groups, saccadic reaction times (SRTs) were enhanced in the patients, and the error-correct difference waveforms showed reduced amplitudes for patients relative to controls in the ERN time window. Notably, this effect was mainly driven by an increased CRN in the patients. In the later Pe time window, the difference signal
yielded higher amplitudes in patients compared to controls mainly because of smaller Pe amplitudes on correct trials in patients. The altered ERN/CRN pattern suggests that the cerebellum is critically involved in fast classification of saccadic accuracy. Largely intact performance accuracy together with increased SRTs and the altered Pe pattern may indicate a compensatory mechanism presumably related to slower, more conscious aspects of error processing in the patients. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Actomyosin contractility is a major force-generating mechanism that drives rearrangement of actomyosin networks; it is fundamental to cellular functions such as cellular reshaping and movement. Thus, to clarify the mechanochemical foundation of the emergence of cellular functions, understanding the relationship between actomyosin contractility and rearrangement of actomyosin networks is crucial. For this purpose, in this study, we present a new particulate-based model for simulating the motions of actin, non-muscle myosin II, and alpha-actinin.