“A functional polymorphism in the 5′flanking region of the serotonin transporter gene (17q11.2, 5-HTTLPR) alters the transcription of the 5-HT transporter gene and seems to be associated with depression and anxiety-related personality traits in humans. This effect appears to be the most pronounced in individuals who are homozygous for the low-expressing “”S”" allele who have experienced significant critical life events
in the past. Animal studies now link this polymorphism to an increased stress reactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal Tideglusib mw (HPA) axis. In humans, it remains unknown whether this polymorphism by itself affects HPA axis or only in interaction with environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism for the HPA axis LY2874455 ic50 in humans early in the development at a time when individuals were exposed to very few or no early adverse experiences so far.
We genotyped DNA for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism including the A/G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in 126 three-day old newborns. The newborn’s stress response was stimulated by a heel prick which is a part of a routine medical procedure. The heel prick induced a significant biological
(i.e., cortisol) stress response in all newborns. Newborns with the “”S/S”" genotype showed a significantly higher endocrine response in comparison to newborns with “”L/L”" or “”S/L”" genotype.
In this sample of newborn babies, the 5-HTTLPR genotype affected the HPA stress response to painful stimulation irrespective of additional influence of pre- or perinatal environmental factors we measured. (C) 2009 PD0332991 solubility dmso Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A characteristic of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the development of tremor within the 4-6 Hz range. One method used to better understand pathological tremor is to compare the responses to tremor-type actions generated intentionally in healthy adults. This study was designed to investigate the similarities and differences between voluntarily generated 4-6 Hz tremor and PD tremor in regards to their amplitude, frequency and coupling characteristics. Tremor responses
for 8 PD individuals (on- and off-medication) and 12 healthy adults were assessed under postural and resting conditions. Results showed that the voluntary and PD tremor were essentially identical with regards to the amplitude and peak frequency. However, differences between the groups were found for the variability (SD of peak frequency, proportional power) and regularity (Approximate Entropy, ApEn) of the tremor signal. Additionally, coherence analysis revealed strong inter-limb coupling during voluntary conditions while no bilateral coupling was seen for the PD persons. Overall, healthy participants were able to produce a 5 Hz tremulous motion indistinguishable to that of PD patients in terms of peak frequency and amplitude.