(C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“In recent years it has become widely recognized that bacteriophages have several potential applications in the food industry. They have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health, as biopreservatives in food and as tools for detecting pathogenic bacteria throughout the food
chain. Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect and lyse bacterial cells. Consequently, they display two unique features relevant in and suitable for food safety. Namely, their safe use as they are harmless to mammalian cells and their high host specificity that allows proper starter performance in fermented products and keeps the natural microbiota undisturbed. However, Mdivi1 supplier the recent approval of bacteriophages as food additives has opened the discussion about ‘edible viruses’. In VE-821 clinical trial this review, we examine the promising uses of phages for the control of foodborne pathogens and the drawbacks on which more research is needed to further exploit these biological entities.”
mechanisms underlying spontaneous neurotransmitter release are not well understood. Under physiological as well as pathophysiological circumstances, spontaneous fusion events can set the concentration of ambient levels of neurotransmitter within the synaptic cleft and in the extracellular milieu. In the brain, unregulated release of excitatory neurotransmitters, exacerbated during pathological conditions
such as stroke, can lead to neuronal damage and death. In addition, recent findings suggest that under physiological circumstances spontaneous release events can trigger postsynaptic signaling events independent of evoked neurotransmitter release. Therefore, elucidation of mechanisms underlying spontaneous neurotransmission may help us better understand the functional significance of this form of release and provide tools for its selective manipulation. For instance, our recent investigations indicate that the level of cholesterol in the synapse plays a critical role in limiting spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion. MK-0518 molecular weight Therefore, alterations in synaptic cholesterol metabolism can be a critical determinant of glutamatergic neurotransmission at rest. This article aims to provide a closer look into our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying spontaneous neurotransmission and the signaling triggered by these unitary release events. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biological sources for the control of plant pathogenic fungi remain an important objective for sustainable agricultural practices. Actinomycetes are used extensively in the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture owing to their great diversity in enzyme production. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated chitinase production by endophytic actinomycetes and the potential of this for control of phytopathogenic fungi.