(C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3520677]“
“Infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with the development of severe liver disease, but cofactors – namely alcohol abuse – in Scotland’s HCV-positive population complicate estimation of the unique contribution
of HCV. We compared the risk of hospital admission/death for a liver-related cause in a large cohort of Glasgow’s injecting drug users (IDUs) testing HCV-positive with IDUs testing HCV negative. Data for 6566 current/former PLX3397 cell line IDUs who had been tested for anti-HCV and/or HCV RNA by polymerase chain reaction in Greater Glasgow health board between 1993 and 2007 were linked to the national hospitalization database and deaths registry to identify all admissions and deaths from a liver-related condition. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for recurrent events. Time at risk was censored at 2 years following an HCV test to address bias owing to unobserved seroconversion. The risk of hospitalization/death from a liver-related or an alcoholic selleck products liver-related condition following HCV testing was greater for those IDUs with no prior alcohol-related hospitalization who tested positive [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.5-6.7; 4.9, 95% CI: 1.8-13.1, respectively], compared with those who tested anti-HCV negative, but not for those IDUs with a prior alcohol admission (HR = 0.8, 95% CI:
0.4-1.5; 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.6). There was little evidence for CYT387 an increased risk of hospitalization/death for an exclusively nonalcoholic liver condition for those testing positive (HR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-2.7),
after adjustment for previous alcohol-related admission. Within Glasgow’s IDU population, HCV positivity is associated with an increased risk of a liver-related outcome, but this is not observed for those IDUs whose problem alcohol use already increases their risk.”
“Nonepileptic seizures (NES) provide a clinical challenge as the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. The present study compares 27 participants with confirmed NES presentations with 39 individuals with epileptic seizure (ES) presentations only, on indices of psychopathology, trauma history, dissociative propensity, and attachment style. Psychopathology and dissociation were found to be significantly elevated in the NES group compared with the ES group. No differences were found between groups in terms of trauma history and attachment style. However, trauma history did correlate significantly with psychopathology in the NES group but not in the ES group. Finally, whereas the relationship between psychological variables and seizure frequency was weak within the ES group, trauma history, a fearful attachment dimension, psychopathology, and dissociation predicted seizure frequency in the NES group. Implications for understanding and interventions with NES presentations are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc.