“Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) refers t

“Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) refers to 2 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, and RSA with unknown causes is called unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Tim-3, a subtype of the T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (Tim) protein family, might

be an important regulatory molecule that plays a pivotal role in selleck compound URSA, which might be triggered mostly by Th1/Th2 immune deviation. To understand the etiology and pathogenesis of URSA in Han Chinese women, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of rs10053538 and rs10515746 in the promoter of Tim-3 and the risk of URSA in Han Chinese women.

Methods: One hundred and forty-eight women with RSA resulting in still birth were enrolled in the URSA group. We performed tests to rule out congenital reproductive system malformation, reproductive system tumor, endocrine dyscrasia, and chromosome abnormalities. One hundred and fifty-three women with normal pregnancy leading to live birth were selected H 89 concentration at random to comprise the control group. All women

included in this study were genetically unrelated Han Chinese women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) were used to determine polymorphisms of rs10053538 and rs10515746, respectively, in all subjects. PCR products were chosen at random for sequencing.

Results: No significant statistical difference was found between the distribution frequency of the GT + TT genotype and T allele on the rs10053538 locus in the URSA group or the control group (10.1% vs. 11.8%, Chi(2) = 0.205, P = 0.651; 5.1% vs. 6.5%, Chi(2) = 0.592, P = 0.441; respectively). Neither was there

a significant difference between the distribution frequency of the GT + TT genotype and T allele on the rs10515746 locus in the groups (6.8% vs. 3.9%, Chi(2) 1.201, P = 0.273; 3.4% vs. 2.0%, Chi(2) = 1.169, P = 0.280; respectively).

Conclusions: The present study suggested that these polymorphisms of rs10053538 or rs10515746 in the Tim-3 promoter may not be associated with URSA in Han Chinese women.”
“Mesotocin (MT) is a neurohypophysis hormone in non-mammalian vertebrates including chickens, and homologous of oxytocin (OT) in mammals. Oxytocin (OT) is a well known reproductive hormone in mammals, but the physiological WH-4-023 roles of MT in chickens have not been clarified well. OT is thought to regulate feeding behavior because central and peripheral injections of OT inhibit feeding behavior in mammals. In avian, on the other hand, the effect of MT on feeding regulation has not yet been clarified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine whether MT is related to the regulation of feeding in chicks (Gallus gallus). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MT significantly decreased food intake in chicks while intraperitoneal injection had no effect.

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