Electroencephalograms of the participants were recorded during the cognitive reappraisal tasks to extract the gamma oscillations. Gamma activity was quantified by measuring event-related changes in the gamma band power (30-55 Hz). During the tasks, the greatest gamma activity was found at the parietal regions. CBL0137 purchase Greater parietal gamma activity was induced
by the emotional pictures compared with the neutral ones when the participants passively viewed the pictures. No such difference in the parietal gamma activity was found when the participants performed the cognitive reappraisal tasks. In addition, parietal gamma activity during the cognitive reappraisal tasks was greater than that during the control task in response to the neutral pictures, implying the role of parietal gamma activity in the
top-down cognitive execution process. In contrast, parietal gamma activity during the cognitive reappraisal task to increase emotions was greater than the levels of activity during the task to decrease emotions and during SHP099 the control task in response to the emotional pictures, implying the role of parietal gamma activity in the bottom-up sensory emotional process. These results suggest that parietal gamma activity may be implicated in the multiple cognitive reappraisal processes. NeuroReport 23:995-999 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Tumor cells with tumorigenic potential might be limited to a small population of
cells, called cancer-initiating cells (CICs). CICs efficiently form colonies in vitro, yield both CIC and non-CIC populations, maintain reactive oxygen species (ROS) at low levels, show high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity, and are mostly in a quiescent state of the cell cycle. GSK621 in vitro CICs of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are small in size, with low levels of ROS. The relationship between ROS level and ALDH activity in CICs was examined in HL cell lines. ROS-low and ALDH-high populations formed colonies in semi-solid cultures more efficiently than ROS-high and ALDH-low populations. ALDH-high populations yielded both ALDH-low and -high populations, whereas ALDH-low populations rarely yielded an ALDH-high population. The number of cells in a quiescent state was significantly greater in ROS-low than in ROS-high cells, whereas that of ALDH-high and ALDH-low cells was comparable to each other. These findings show that ALDH-high and ROS-low cells share CIC-like potential, but they differ in their cell cycle status, suggesting that CICs are comprised of cells with heterogeneous characteristics. Laboratory Investigation (2012) 92, 606-614; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2012.