Ltd ) operated at a voltage of 40 kV and a current of 40 mA with

Ltd.) operated at a voltage of 40 kV and a current of 40 mA with CuKα radiation (λ = 1.54060/1.54443 Å), and the diffracted intensities were Gemcitabine recorded from 35° to 80° 2θ angles. The multidrug-resistant strains of Escherichia coli (DH5α) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (LBA4404) were prepared according to previous report from our lab [28]. The DH5α-multidrug-resistant (MDR) strain (containing plasmids pUC19 and pZPY112) was selected against antibiotics ampicillin (100 μg/ml) and chloramphenicol

BIIB057 datasheet (35 μg/ml). LBA4404-MDR containing plasmid pCAMBIA 2301 was selected against antibiotics rifampicin (25 mg/l) and kanamycin (50 mg/l). LB broth/agar were used to culture the bacteria. The disc diffusion method selleck screening library was employed for assaying antimicrobial activities of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against E. coli (DH5α), multidrug-resistant E. coli (DH5α-MDR), plant pathogenic bacteria A. tumefaciens (LBA4404), and multidrug-resistant A. tumefaciens (LBA4404-MDR). One hundred microliters of overnight cultures of each bacterium was spread onto LB agar plates. Concentration of nanoparticles in suspension was calculated according to [27] following the formula [where C = molar concentration of the nanoparticles solution, T = total number of silver atoms added as AgNO3 (1 mM), N = number of atoms per nanoparticles, V = volume of reaction solution in liters, and A = Avogadro’s

number (6.023 × 1,023)]. The concentration of silver nanoparticles was found to be 51 mg/l. This silver nanoparticle suspension was used in requisite amount for further antimicrobial study. Sterile paper discs of 5-mm diameter with increasing percentage of silver nanoparticles in a total volume of 100 μl (volume made up with sterile double distilled water) were placed on each plate. Ten, 20, 50, 70, and 100% silver nanoparticle solution corresponding to 0.51, 1.02, 2.55, 3.57, and 5.1 μg of silver nanoparticles in 100-μl solution each were

placed on the discs. Plates inoculated with A. tumefaciens (LBA4404 and LBA4404-MDR) were incubated in 28°C for 48 h, and those inoculated with strains of E. coli (DH5α and DH5α-MDR) Vildagliptin were kept at 37°C for 12 h. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles was assessed by measuring inhibition zones around the discs. In order to observe the effect of the silver nanoparticles on growth kinetics of bacteria, silver nanoparticles were added to the liquid culture of two bacteria, E. coli (DH5α) and A. tumefaciens (LBA4404). For the initial culture, 7 ml of LB medium was inoculated with 500 μl of overnight grown bacterial culture. This freshly set bacterial culture was supplemented with 2.5 ml of nanoparticle suspension, with concentration of 51 μg/ml. In each of the control sets, 2.5 ml of Macrophomina cell filtrate only was added without nanoparticles. The OD values of the mixture was recorded at 600-nm wavelength of visible light at regular time intervals (i.e.

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