Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves aga

Plants have developed various mechanisms to defend themselves against herbivorous insects. In addition to nonspecific, constitutively expressed physical and chemical barriers, plants employ specific induced defenses in re sponse to insect feeding or even egg laying. In contrast to feeding, insect egg laying causes min imal damage to plants, dependent on the egg Carfilzomib laying be havior of herbivorous insects, which can be quite distinct in different species. Direct defenses against insect eggs have been reported for crop and herbaceous species including the production of ovicidal substances, growth of neoplasms, development of necrotic zones. Indirect defense against insect egg laying includes induced changes of plant volatile emissions or modifications of the plant surface Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries chemis try attracting or arresting egg parasitoids, which in turn kill the eggs of the herbivores.

The Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries first study demonstrating indirect defense against insect eggs was a study of the field elm, where eggs of the elm Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries leaf beetle induced volatiles which attract the egg parasitoid Oomyzus gallerucae, a tiny eulophid wasp specialized on elm leaf beetle eggs. Elm leaf Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries beetles often feed and lay eggs on the same plant and are known to remove the leaf epidermis prior to egg laying by scratching the leaf surface with their mouthparts. Ex perimental simulation of this egg laying sequence by transferring eggs or oviduct secretion on scratched elm leaves or treatment with jasmonic acid or methyl jasmonate also elicited indirect defense responses in field elms.

A recent study further showed that terpenoids present in the odor of egg induced elm leaves are rele vant for attraction of the egg parasitoids. Induction of attractive plant volatiles by insect egg laying has been shown in one other tree species and two herbaceous crops. The natural range of the European field elm Ulmus minor extends Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries predominantly within South ern Europe. However, through cultivation it occurs throughout the temperate world. Elms are greatly valued for their timber qualities and prior to the Dutch elm dis ease outbreaks, elms were also frequently planted within urban areas because of their environmental tolerance. Many insects including moths, gall mites, and beetles feed on field elms. The elm leaf beetle X. luteola can defoliate entire trees and is recognized as a major urban and forest pest in the USA and Australia. The recently published EST sequences for U. americana selleckchem Imatinib Mesylate is to our knowledge, the only other gene expression study of any Ulmus species, where 535 ESTs were identified after trees were exposed to the fungal pathogen Ophios toma novo ulmi, which is the causative agent of Dutch elm disease. Knowledge on how plants are able to respond at the molecular level towards egg laying is scarce.

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