“Rationale Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is particularly evident in the domains of attention and executive functions. Atypical antipsychotics are somewhat more effective than conventional antipsychotics in improving cognitive functioning in these patients.
Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of conventional and atypical antipsychotics in a model of attentional performance
deficit of schizophrenia induced by blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex.
Materials and methods Attentional performance was assessed using the five-choice serial reaction time task. The task provides indices of attentional functioning (% Sorafenib correct responses), executive control (measured by anticipatory and perseverative responding), decision time (measured by correct response latency), and omissions. Haloperidol and clozapine were given intraperitoneally (IP) to animals that had received vehicle or a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, 3-(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), directly into the medial prefrontal cortex.
Results Fifty nanograms/side
of CPP reduced accuracy (% correct responses) and increased anticipatory and perseverative responding. Haloperidol (0.03 mg/kg IP) reduced the CPP-induced anticipatory and perseverative overresponding but not the impairment in accuracy. In contrast, clozapine (2.5 mg/kg IP) reversed BAY 1895344 ic50 the decrease in accuracy and impulsivity (anticipatory responding) but not perseverative NSC23766 datasheet overresponding. CPP increased decision time and omissions, but these effects were not affected by either haloperidol or clozapine.
Conclusions The effects on “”impulsivity”" and “”compulsive perseveration”" in a rat model of attentional and executive
deficit of schizophrenia might differentiate conventional and atypical antipsychotics. Antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A receptors may best explain the facilitatory effects of clozapine on cognition.”
“Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disease, and no specific therapy has been proven to reduce mortality in a randomized controlled trial. However, management in a neuroscience intensive care unit does appear to improve outcomes, suggesting that many available therapies do in fact provide benefit. In the acute phase of intracerebral hemorrhage care, strategies aimed at minimizing ongoing bleeding include reversal of anticoagulation and modest blood pressure reduction. In addition, the monitoring and regulation of glucose levels, temperature, and, in selected cases, intracranial pressure are recommended by many groups. Selected patients may benefit from hematoma evacuation or external ventricular drainage.