Since the ultimate success of long-term management for any condit

Since the ultimate success of long-term management for any condition is based on an understanding of its pathophysiology, and because the pathophysiology of stress urinary incontinence is incompletely defined,

animal models have recently been developed to better understand stress urinary incontinence and develop novel treatment alternatives.

Materials and Methods: Several animal models for urethral dysfunction have emerged in the last few years, including those based on pathophysiological theories of urethral sphincter dysfunction that were designed to simulate maternal birth trauma. Other models have focused on the creation of Selleck Rabusertib a durable model of dysfunction for investigating novel treatments.

Results: Since animals cannot selleck chemicals express intent, these animal models have focused on measuring decreased urethral resistance. The most widely used methods are the sneeze test, the tilt table technique and the leak point pressure test. Newer techniques include abdominal leak point pressure, urethral pressure measurement and retrograde urethral perfusion pressure. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages of each technique, all methods measure the composite contribution to urethral resistance from smooth and striated muscle, urethral closure and connective tissue, although

none measures intent.

Conclusions: We critically reviewed the different models of stress urinary incontinence and urethral dysfunction as well as the different methods of measuring urethral resistance.”
“The serotonergic EGFR inhibitor system regulates processing in components of the vestibular nuclear complex, including the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH). Recent studies using anterograde and retrograde tracers have shown that vestibular nuclei are targeted by regionally selective projections from the

serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus. The objective of the present investigation was to determine whether the DRN is targeted by projections from the vestibular nuclear complex in rats using, the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA). After injection of BDA into PH or the caudal parvicellular division of MVe, labeled fibers and terminals were observed in the ventromedial and lateral subdivisions of DRN. These findings indicate that projections from the vestibular nuclei and PH are organized to modulate processing within specific functional domains of the DRN. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Pelvic floor disorders including urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse and fecal incontinence are common problems encountered by the older woman. With the increasing population of older American women urologists and gynecologists can expect to provide evaluation and treatment of these conditions with increasing frequency. These conditions are amenable to medical and surgical therapies.

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