The study involved 2 separate home based test days (A and B), eac

The study involved 2 separate home based test days (A and B), each consisting of 9 timed urine collections starting in the evening 1 hour before desmopressin administration and continuing for 16 hours following desmopressin administration. Test A was done during fluid restriction, and test B was done during an oral fluid load.

Results: Under fluid restriction LGK-974 nmr 16 patients failed to achieve urine concentration greater than 850 mOsmol/l at the midnight collection following desmopressin administration.

After an oral fluid load given at the start of the test the majority of patients failed to reach maximal concentration of urine as voided during hydropenia, and 45 patients failed to regain appropriate dilution of urine even when an oral water load of 15 ml/kg (urine osmolality less than 750 mOsmol/l) was given in the morning at the end of the test. This finding is suggestive of a prolonged duration of action of the drug.

Conclusions: Pharmacodynamic tests reveal a suboptimal effect of desmopressin on urine concentration in a significant percentage of patients, which worsens when fluid is not restricted before desmopressin administration. Also the time to reach maximal antidiuretic effect and the duration of pharmacodynamic Elacridar ic50 action show a wide range,

requiring individualization of mode and time of administration. Our data demonstrate that a simple pharmacodynamic test as described may give important information on time of dosing, duration of action and influence of oral fluid intake, allowing individualization of therapy. Data also reveal that desmopressin should be administered at least 1 hour before

bedtime, and that in case of therapy resistance a longer interval, up to 2 hours, might further reduce many diuresis rate in the early night. Because of the documented prolonged action of desmopressin in some patients, increasing the dose without performing pharmacodynamic testing is no longer acceptable.”
“Aminopeptidases and dopamine (DA) exhibit asymmetries in the brain that are reflected in the peripheral response to unilateral striatal DA depletions (experimental hemiparkinsonism). This might be due to asymmetries in the autonomic innervation of the peripheral vessels. Nitric oxide (NO) is released through vascular sympathetic activation. A similar pathway could be postulated for aminopeptidases. Angiotensin 11, metabolized by aminopeptidase A (AP A), interacts with NO and dopamine in the control of blood pressure. Moreover, plasma AP A activity and NO concentrations are elevated in hypertensive rats in which sympathetic activity is increased. We hypothesize that plasma AP A activity and NO concentrations may reflect a central asymmetry of the sympathetic activity.

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