We found that neurons INK1197 mw in the CD were more likely to encode the temporally discounted value for the chosen target

(n = 22 neurons) than for the unchosen target (n = 9 neurons; χ2 test, p < 0.01; Figure 4B). In the VS, 26 and 21 neurons significantly modulated their activity according to the temporally discounted value of the chosen and unchosen targets, respectively, and this difference was not significant (χ2 test, p > 0.4). We also found that six and nine neurons in the CD and VS, respectively, significantly modulated their activity according to the temporally discounted values for both chosen and unchosen targets (Figure 4B). For the CD, this was significantly more than expected when the temporally discounted values of chosen and unchosen targets influenced the activity of each neuron independently (χ2 test, p < 0.005). In addition, most neurons encoding the temporally discounted values for both chosen and

unchosen targets showed the same signs for their regression coefficients (four and seven neurons in the CD and VS, respectively). For both CD and VS, the correlation coefficient between the regression coefficients for the temporally discounted values of the chosen and unchosen targets was significantly more positive than the see more values obtained from the permutation test (p < 10−4; Figure 4B). To test whether activity seemingly related to temporally discounted values might reflect the effects of different target colors or number of yellow dots used to indicate the reward magnitude and delay, we analyzed the activity recorded during the control task. During the control task, the delay and magnitude of reward were fixed for all targets. Therefore, the activity of neurons encoding temporally discounted values Sclareol should be unrelated to the “fictitious” temporally discounted values that are computed as if the magnitude and delay of reward during the control task varied with the target color and number of yellow dots. Indeed, many of the neurons in the CD and VS that changed their activity according to the difference

in the temporally discounted values for the leftward and rightward targets (Figures 2B and 2C), their sum (Figure 3B), or the difference in the values for the chosen and unchosen targets (Figure 3F) did not change their activity according to the fictitious temporally discounted values in the control task. The number of CD neurons encoding the difference in the fictitious temporally discounted values for the leftward and rightward targets in the control task (n = 8, 8.6%) was significantly smaller than that in the intertemporal choice task (n = 24, 25.8%; χ2 test, p < 0.005; Table S2). In addition, the number of VS neurons encoding the sum of the fictitious temporally discounted values (n = 15, 16.7%) was significantly lower than that in the intertemporal choice task (n = 31, 34.4%, χ2 test, p < 0.01).