However, the force increase is not significant when the speed cha

However, the force increase is not significant when the speed changes from 1 to 10 m/s. Second, within the range of the indenter travel distance of 10 Å, the three curves under dry or wet indentation overlap each other and the indentation force almost linearly

increases with the travel distance. As the indenter tip further advances, the three curves start to deviate from each other. Figure 12 Effect of indentation speed on indentation force evolution. (a) Dry condition for cases 6, 2, and 4. (b) Wet condition for cases 5, 1, and 3. Moreover, we also analyze how the indentation speed affects friction behaviors along the indenter/work interface. Figure 13 shows the normal and friction force distributions under dry condition for cases 6, 2, and 4. It can be seen that under dry indentation, the normal force of case 4 (100 m/s speed) is significantly higher than those of cases 6 and 2 (1 and 10 m/s, respectively) at surface locations close to the indenter tip. The difference diminishes at the position about 2.5 nm to the indenter tip, in which all three indentation speeds have approximately the same normal force. When the surface position to the indenter tip further increases, the normal force at 100 m/s becomes smaller than those at 1 and 10 m/s, and the 1 m/s curve is overall

slightly lower than the 10 m/s curve in terms of normal force. The trend in normal force is consistent with that observed in indentation force comparison, as shown in Figure 12a. In terms of friction force distributions, the three curves have a similar shape, and the LY3039478 in vitro peak friction force is located around 3.4 to 4.4 nm to the indenter tip depending on the indentation speed. Also, the overall (total) friction force decreases with the increase of indentation speed. Figure 13 Indentation speed effect on (a) normal and (b) friction force distributions under dry indentation. In the mean time, Figure 14 compares the normal and friction

distributions under Amobarbital wet indentation at the indentation speeds of 1 m/s (case 5), 10 m/s (case 1), and 100 m/s (case 3). Compared with Figure 13a, similar observations can be made among the three normal force curves under wet indentation. Also, the friction force curves in Figure 14b have fairly consistent shapes, and the peak friction force is check details always located at around 4.4 nm to the indenter tip. Figure 14 Indentation speed effect on (a) normal and (b) friction force distributions under wet indentation. Conclusions This research investigates nano-indentation processes with the existence of water molecules by using the numerical approach of MD simulation. The potential tribological benefits of water or other liquids, as well as the influence on material property measurements, are intriguing to nano-indentation. This also applies to other tool-based precision manufacturing processes. By configuring 3D indentation of single-crystal copper with a diamond indenter, six simulation cases are developed.

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