Methods: A randomised controlled trial compared students who unde

Methods: A randomised controlled trial compared students who underwent two, week-long, extended simulations, several months apart (Intervention), with students who attended related workshops and seminars alone (Control), for a range of outcome measures. Results: Eighty-four third year students in a graduate-entry medical program were randomised, and 82 completed the study. At the end of the first week, Intervention students scored a mean of 75% on a prescribing test, compared with 70% for Control students (P = 0.02) and Intervention teams initiated cardiac compressions

a mean of 29.1 seconds into a resuscitation test scenario, compared with 70.1 seconds for Control teams (P smaller than 0.01). At the beginning of the second week, an average of nine months later, a significant difference was maintained in relation to the prescribing test only (78% vs 70%, P smaller than 0.01). At the end of the second week, significant Intervention vs Control differences were seen on knowledge and reasoning tests, a further prescribing test (71% vs 63% [P smaller than 0.01]) and a paediatric resuscitation scenario test (252 seconds to initiation of fluid resuscitation vs

339 seconds [P = 0.05]). Conclusions: The study demonstrated long-term retention of improved prescribing Ulixertinib concentration skills, and an immediate effect on knowledge acquisition, reasoning and resuscitation skills, from contextualising learning activities through extended multi-method simulation.”
“Rationale: Although oxidative stress is

a cardinal feature of asthma, the roles of oxidant air pollutants and antioxidant genes heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1), catalase (CAT), and manganese superoxide dismutase (MNSOD) in asthma pathogenesis have yet to be determined.\n\nObjectives: We hypothesized that the functional polymorphisms of HMOX-1 ([GT](n) repeat), CAT (-262C > T -844C > T), and MNSOD (Ala-9Val) are associated with new-onset Liproxstatin-1 price asthma, and the effects of these variants vary by exposure to ozone, a potent oxidant air pollutant.\n\nMethods: We assessed this hypothesis in a population-based cohort of non-Hispanic (n = 11,1125) and Hispanic white (n = 586) children who resided in 12 California communities and who were followed annually for 8 years to ascertain new-onset asthma.\n\nMeasurements and Main Results: Air pollutants were continuously measured in each of the study communities during the 8 years of study follow-up. HMOX-1 “short” alleles (< 23 repeats) were associated with a reduced risk for new-onset asthma among non-Hispanic whites (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.99). This protective effect was largest in children residing in low-ozone communities (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.91) (interaction Pvalue = 0.003). Little evidence for an association with HMOX-1 was observed among Hispanic children. In contrast, Hispanic children with a variant of the CAT-262 “T” allele (CT or TT) had an increased risk for asthma (H R, 1.

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