To validate the results obtained by sequencing, we determined the

To validate the results obtained by sequencing, we determined the relative concentrations of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes with real-time PCR. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio for faecal samples of B1 and B2 was 1/0.0004 and 1/0.0081, respectively, indicating a very low abundance of Bacteroidetes. In spiked faecal samples, however, Bacteroides spp. were succesfully recovered down to 1% (104 CFU/ml). Epigenetics inhibitor taxonomic assignment at family level revealed 16 different families of which Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Peptococcaceae and the unclassified Clostridiales Incertae Sedis HSP inhibition XIV held most representatives. Of all these families, the Clostridiaceae represented by far the highest number of different phylotypes

(Figure  1). The distribution of common OTUs within the predominant bacterial families confirms the phylotype richness of Clostridiaceae in both libraries (Table  1). Figure 1 Phylotype frequency at the family level as revealed by clone library analysis of captive cheetah faeces. Table 1 Most abundant OTUs, Selleckchem GSK1904529A their taxonomic assignment at family level and closest type strain in number and % of clones for both clone libraries from captive cheetah faeces OTUa Bacterial family Clostridium cluster Closest type strain CL-B1 (352 clones) CL-B2 (350 clones) OTU-2 Clostridiaceae I Clostridium perfringens

ATCC 13124T 6 (1.7%) 59 (16.9%) OTU-3 Clostridiaceae XI Clostridium hiranonis TO-931T 48 (13.6%) 138 (39.4%) OTU-5 Clostridiaceae XI Clostridium glycolicum DSM 1288T 1 (0.3%) 14 (4.0%) OTU-6 Peptococcaceae n/a Desulfonispora thiosulfatigenes DSM 11270T 33 (9.4%) 1 (0.3%) OTU-7 Ruminococcaceae XIVa Ruminococcus gnavus ATCC 29149T 69 (19.6%) 20 (5.7%) OTU-10 Incertae Sedis XIV XIVa Blautia hansenii JCM 14655T 36 (10.2%) 19 (5.4%) OTU-12 Incertae Sedis XIV XIVa Blautia glucerasei HFTH-1T 32 (9.1%) 3 (0.9%) OTU-13 Incertae Sedis XIV XIVa Blautia

glucerasei HFTH-1T 29 (8.2%) 8 Urease (2.3%) OTU-17 Coriobacteriaceae n/a Collinsella stercoris RCA55-54T 6 (1.7%) 13 (3.7%) OTU-25 Enterococcaceae n/a Enterococcus cecorum ATCC 43198T 31 (8.8%) – aOTUs which consist of at least ≥ 10 clones in CL-B1 or CL-B2; OTU = operational taxonomic unit; n/a = not applicable. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries at OTU level For each OTU, a representative clone sequence was selected along with the type strain of its nearest validated species neighbour as obtained in RDP to construct a wide-range phylogenetic tree. Figure  2 shows the phylogenetic inferences among the OTUs affiliated with the phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria. Recovered sequences within the Firmicutes spanned three major orders i.e. Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Erysipelotrichales. Figure 2 Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree showing the nearest phylogenetic related type strains for recovered OTUs from two 16S rRNA clone libraries from captive cheetah faeces.

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