All predictors except spasticity were treated as continuous
variables in the logistic regression (Royston et al 2009). The predictors were entered in the initial model for multivariate analysis. Initially we used a bootstrap variable selection procedure that retained those variables selected with backwards stepwise regression (p to remove = 0.2) in at least 80% of bootstrap samples. Regression coefficients were zerocorrected to reduce bias ( Austin 2008). However, two of the three bootstrap models obtained in this way had poor calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p < 0.05). We therefore used, instead, a conventional backwards stepwise regression variable selection procedure (p to remove = 0.05) to develop our final models. Discrimination (how well the INCB018424 model can identify patients with and without outcomes) was quantified with
area under the receiver-operating curves (AUC). Calibration (how well observed probabilities agree with inhibitors predicted probabilities) was evaluated by inspecting the slope of the observed-predicted graphs and with the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic ( Royston et al 2009). All analyses were conducted using Stata 11.1. The flow of participants through the study is shown in Figure 1. Baseline measures were obtained at a median of 6 days (IQR 3 to 11) after stroke. Final outcome MLN2238 solubility dmso measures were measured at a median of 6.1 months (IQR 5.9 to 6.4) after stroke. Patients who were able to ambulate independently (n = 59), or move a cup (n = 135), or feed themselves (n = 131) with the hemiplegic arm at
baseline were excluded from subsequent analyses of recovery in these abilities, respectively. Twenty of the remaining participants died, four declined re-assessment, and three could not be contacted (Figure 1). Consequently the overall rate of follow up was 81% for ambulation, 78% for moving a cup, and 81% for feeding. In participants who survived, the rate of follow up was 94% for ambulation, heptaminol 94% for moving a cup, and 97% for feeding. Characteristics of patients are shown in Table 1. Of the 114 stroke survivors who were unable to ambulate initially, 80 (70%, 95% CI 62 to 79) were able to do so at six months. Of the 51 stroke survivors who were unable to move a cup across the table initially, 21 (41%, 95% CI 27 to 55) were able to do so at six months. Of the 56 stroke survivors who were unable to feed themselves with a spoonful of liquid initially, 25 (45%, 95% CI 31 to 58) were able to do so at six months. Results of univariate analyses are shown in Table 2. Odds ratios are associated with a one-unit increase in the predictor. Both severity of stroke and motor function (standing up ability and combined motor function of arm) were significantly associated with recovery of ambulation and feeding oneself. A one-unit increase in the NIHSS was associated with a 15% reduction in odds of recovering ambulation. A one-unit increase in Item 4 of MAS was associated with a 2.