However, the diagnosable proportion increased to 80 0 % (at heart

However, the diagnosable proportion increased to 80.0 % (at heart rate 60–64 beats/min), 85.7 % (at heart rate

55–59 beats/min), and 100.0 % (at heart rate ≤54 beats/min), showing a positive correlation between the diagnosable proportion for the reconstruction images at optimal conditions and heart rate at CCTA by 16-slice MDCT. Fig. 5 Relationship between diagnosable proportion and heart rate. There was a positive correlation between the diagnosable proportion and heart Smad inhibitor rate. a images at mid-diastole, b images at optimal conditions 3.6 Safety and Tolerability No subject died and no adverse reaction that required termination of study drug administration occurred during the study period. 4 Discussion In the present study, injection of the study drug was found to be effective to rapidly lower the heart rate soon after

administration. The study drug, with a half-life of only 4 min, did not have a prolonged β-blocking effect after CCTA and lowered the heart rate only during CCTA (Fig. 3); therefore, hemodynamics do not need to be monitored for a long period after CCTA. In fact, in clinical practice using oral agents, patients must attend the hospital to take a β-blocking agent 1–2 h before initiation of CCTA and to monitor their heart rate to determine whether it meets the conditions for CCTA. This means it takes several hours before starting CCTA. In the case of this study drug, in contrast, administration is possible immediately before CCTA, allowing early completion of imaging. The results from the present study confirmed that this drug can be administered to patients just before CCTA, in contrast to oral agents requiring administration 1–2 h before CCTA. Thus, this drug appears to buy ACY-1215 increase the efficiency of CCTA. On the other hand, while bradyarrhythmia and hypotension induced by the β1-blocking

effect and bronchoconstriction and peripheral circulatory disorder induced by the β2-blocking effect are known adverse reactions Mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease of β-blockers, the primary adverse reactions to the study drug are likely to be bradyarrhythmia and hypotension because of the high selectivity of this drug for β1-receptors (β1/β2: 251/1) [23, 24]. In the present study, no subject developed bradyarrhythmia and hypotension. Furthermore, this drug was shown to lower the heart rate only during CCTA (for approximately 30 min) and not to have a prolonged effect after the completion of CCTA, confirming its safety. Meijboom et al. [25] and Marano et al. [26] confirmed the high diagnostic performance of CCTA in multivendor, multicenter clinical studies using other CT models. In the present study using 16-slice CTs from Siemens, Toshiba, and GE, which are widely used in Japan, CCTA was performed only in subjects with a pre-CT heart rate as high as 70–90 beats/min, confirming the efficacy and safety of injection of the short-acting β1-receptor blocker landiolol hydrochloride.

Eur J Med Chem 42:1095–1101PubMedCrossRef Bayrak H, Demirbas A, K

Eur J Med Chem 42:1095–1101PubMedCrossRef Bayrak H, Demirbas A, Karaoglu SA, Demirbas

N (2009a) Synthesis of some new 1,2,4-triazoles, their Mannich and Schiff bases and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Eur J Med Chem 44:1057–1066PubMedCrossRef Bayrak H, Demirbas A, Demirbas N, Karaoglu SA (2009b) Synthesis of some new 1,2,selleck 4-triazoles starting from isonicotinic acid hydrazide and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Eur J Med Chem 44:4362–4366PubMedCrossRef CLSI (2008) Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; eighteenth international supplement. CLSI document M7-MIC. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne Eswaran S, Adhikari AV, Shetty NS (2009) Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of novel quinoline derivatives carrying 1,2,4-triazole moiety. Eur J Med Chem 44:4637–4647PubMedCrossRef

VX-689 Isloor AM, Kalluraya B, Shetty P (2009) Regioselective reaction: synthesis, characterization and pharmacological studies of some new Mannich bases derived from 1,2,4-triazoles. Eur J Med Chem 44:3784–3787PubMedCrossRef Li JP, Luo QF, Wang YL, Wang H (2001) An efficient solid-state AMN-107 clinical trial method for the preparation of acylthiosemicarbazides. Synth Commun 31:1793–1797CrossRef Oruç EE, Rollas S, Kandemirli F, Shvets N, Dimoglo AS (2004) 1,3,4-Thiadiazole derivatives. Synthesis, structure elucidation and strucuture-antituberculosis activity relationship investigation. J Med Chem 47:6760–6767PubMedCrossRef Plech T, Wujec M, Siwek A, Kosikowska

U, Malm A (2011a) Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of thiosemicarbazides, s-triazoles and their Mannich bases bearing 3-chlorophenyl moiety. Eur J Med Chem 46:241–248PubMedCrossRef Plech T, Wujec M, Kaproń B, Kosikowska U, Malm A (2011b) Synthesis and antibacterial activity of some novel N2-hydroxymethyl and N2-aminomethyl derivatives of 4-aryl-5-(3-chlorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione. mafosfamide Heteroat Chem 22:737–743CrossRef Rolain JM, Parola P, Cornaglia G (2010) New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1): towards a new pandemia? Clin Microbiol Infect 16:1699–1701PubMedCrossRef Shafiee A, Sayadi A, Roozbahani MH, Foroumadi A, Kamal F (2002) Synthesis and in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of 5-(1-methyl-5-nitro-2-imidazolyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazoles. Arch Pharm Pharm Med Chem 10:495–499CrossRef Turan-Zitouni G, Kaplancıklı ZA, Yıldız MT, Chevallet P, Kaya D (2005) Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 4-phenyl/cyclohexyl-5-(1-phenoxyethyl)-3-[N-(2-thiazolyl)acetamido]-thio-4H-1,24-triazole derivatives. Eur J Med Chem 40:607–613PubMedCrossRef Wujec M, Kosikowska U, Paneth P, Malm A (2007) Reaction of hydrazide of (tetrazol-5-yl)acetic acid with isothiocyanates and antimicrobial investigations of newly-obtained compounds.

PubMedCrossRef 43 Wadayama B, Toguchida J, Yamaguchi T, Sasaki M

PubMedCrossRef 43. Wadayama B, Toguchida J, Yamaguchi T, Sasaki MS, Yamamuro T: P53 expression and its relationship to DNA alterations in bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

British Journal of Cancer 1993, 68:1134–1139.PubMedCrossRef 44. Stefanou DG, Nonni AV, Agnantis NJ, Athanassiadou SE, Briassoulis E, Pavlidis N: p53/MDM-2 immunohistochemical expression correlated with proliferative activity selleck inhibitor in different subtypes of human sarcomas: a ten-year followup study. Anticancer Research 1998, 18:4673–4681.PubMed 45. Lonardo F, Ueda T, Huvos AG, Healey J, Ladanyi M: P53 and MDM2 alterations in osteosarcomas. Correlation with clinicopathologic features and proliferative rate. Cancer 1997, 79:1541–1547.PubMedCrossRef 46. Matsuo T, Sugita T, Shimose S, Kubo T, Ishikawa M, Yasunaga Y, Ochi M: Immunohistochemical expression of promyelocytic leukemia body in soft tissue sarcomas. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 2008, 27:73.CrossRef 47. Ueda

Y, Dockhorn-Dworniczak B, Blasius S, Mellin W, Wuisman P, Böcker W, P5091 mw Roessner A: Analysis of mutant P53 protein in osteosarcomas and other malignant and benign lesions of bone. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 1993, 119:172–178.PubMedCrossRef 48. Naka T, Fukuda T, Shinohara N, Iwamoto Y, Sugioka Y, Tsuneyoshi M: Osteosarcoma versus malignant fibrous histiocytoma of bone in patients older than 40 years. A clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis with special reference to malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like osteosarcoma. Cancer 1995,

76:972–984.PubMedCrossRef 49. Graeber TG, Osmanian C, Jacks T, Houseman DE, Koch CJ, Lowe SW, Giaccia AJ: Hypoxia-mediated selection of cells with diminished apoptotic potential in solid tumors. Nature 1996, 379:88–91.PubMedCrossRef 50. Salnikow K, An WG, Melillo G, Blagosklonny MV, Costa M: Nickel-induced transformation shifts the balance Amino acid between HIF-1 and p53 transcription factors. Carcinogenesis 1999, 20:1819–23.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions Hu X carried out most parts of the experiment; Qi BW, Fu T, Wu G, Zhou M, Luo J and Xu JH participated in the experiment; Yu AX conceives the study project, organizes the whole study process, provides financial support, and finalizes the manuscript. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background According to the Centers for Disease Control and SAR302503 manufacturer Prevention (CDC), there are approximately 43 million Americans suffering from arthritis with 21 million affected by osteoarthritis (OA) [1, 2]. It is believed that 1 in 10 or 4.3 million adults aged 60 and older in the United States of America have symptomatic knee OA [3] and 1 in 4 individuals may develop knee and/or hip OA during their lifetime [2]. The general incidence and prevalence of OA increases two to tenfold from age 30 to 65 years [4]. By 2020, the CDC estimates that 60 million Americans will have OA [1, 2].

This illustrates that after injection of CNHK600-IL24 through the

This illustrates that after injection of CNHK600-IL24 through the tail vein, the virus reached the tumor and effectively replicated in the tumor cells. In the metastatic model by tail vein injection, there was intense luminescence in the lungs of the control mice, but the photon intensity in the CNHK600-IL24 treated mice was significantly weakened. The survival time of mice in control group was significantly shorter than that of the CNHK600-EGFP and

CNHK600-IL24 groups. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice in CNHK600-IL24 group survived longer than those of the CNHK600-EGFP group, indicating that the gene-virotherapy was more effective than virotherapy alone. Similarly, GSK2245840 cost in the metastatic model by left ventricular injection, the intensity of fluorescence in treatment groups was significantly weaker than that of the control group. In addition, ex vivo imaging showed reduced metastases in CNHK600-IL24 treated Linsitinib clinical trial mice. Conclusions Our in vitro and in vivo observations Pevonedistat in vitro demonstrated that oncolytic adenovirus expressing IL-24 can actively destroy breast tumor and significantly prolong survival. We hope that this targeting gene-virotherapy

will provide a promising strategy for breast cancer treatment in combination with chemotherapy or other therapeutic modalities in the future. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the Laboratory of Gene and Viral Therapy, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital, Second find more Military Medical University, Shanghai. We appreciate the valuable help from Professor Qian Qijun and Wu Hongping. References 1. Garcia M JA, Ward EM, Center MM, Hao Y, Siegel RL, Thun MJ: Global Cancer Facts & Figures. In Book Global Cancer Facts & Figures. (Editor ed. ^eds.), 12 edition. City: American

Cancer Society; 2007. 2. Saeki T, Mhashilkar A, Swanson X, Zou-Yang XH, Sieger K, Kawabe S, Branch CD, Zumstein L, Meyn RE, Roth JA, et al.: Inhibition of human lung cancer growth following adenovirus-mediated mda-7 gene expression in vivo. Oncogene 2002, 21:4558–4566.PubMedCrossRef 3. Ramesh R, Ito I, Gopalan B, Saito Y, Mhashilkar AM, Chada S: Ectopic production of MDA-7/IL-24 inhibits invasion and migration of human lung cancer cells. Mol Ther 2004, 9:510–518.PubMedCrossRef 4. Gupta P, Su ZZ, Lebedeva IV, Sarkar D, Sauane M, Emdad L, Bachelor MA, Grant S, Curiel DT, Dent P, Fisher PB: mda-7/IL-24: multifunctional cancer-specific apoptosis-inducing cytokine. Pharmacol Ther 2006, 111:596–628.PubMedCrossRef 5. Yang YJ, Chen DZ, Li LX, Sheng QS, Jin ZK, Zhao DF: Targeted IL-24 gene therapy inhibits cancer recurrence after liver tumor resection by inducing tumor cell apoptosis in nude mice. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2009, 8:174–178.PubMed 6. Liu J, Sheng W, Xie Y, Shan Y, Miao J, Xiang J, Yang J: The in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated interleukin-24 expression for laryngocarcinoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2010, 25:29–38.PubMedCrossRef 7.

​pseudomonas ​com[3] Strain Pf-5 is a model biological control a

​pseudomonas.​com[3]. Strain Pf-5 is a model biological control agent that inhabits the rhizosphere of plants and suppresses diseases caused by Fosbretabulin in vitro a wide variety of soilborne pathogens [3–15]. The original analysis of the Pf-5 genome [3] focused primarily on the strain’s metabolic capaCity and on the pathways involved in the production of secondary metabolites. The latter encompass nearly six percent

of the genome and include antibiotics that are toxic to plant pathogenic fungi and Oomycetes and contribute to Pf-5′s broad-spectrum biocontrol activity. The aim of the present study was to more thoroughly analyze and annotate sections of the Pf-5 genome that contain MGEs.

Here, we describe one transposase, six regions containing prophages (termed Prophage 01 to 06) and two genomic islands that are present in the Pf-5 genome. Results and discussion The genome of P. fluorescens Pf-5 contains six prophage regions that vary in G+C content from 62.6% to 46.8% and two putative genomic islands (Table 1). Three of the prophages exceed 15 kb in length and contain genes for transcriptional regulators, DNA metabolism enzymes, structural bacteriophage proteins and lytic enzymes. Table 1 Phage-related elements and genomic islands of P. fluorescens Pf-5 genome Feature Gene range 5′ end 3′ end Size (bp) %GC Presence of find more integrase Type of feature Prophage 01 PFL_1210 ABT-263 ic50 to PFL_1229 1386082 1402957 16875 62.6 No SfV-like prophage Prophage 02 PFL_1842 to PFL_1846 2042157 2050549 8392 46.8 Yes* Defective prophage in tRNASer Prophage 03 Dimethyl sulfoxide PFL_1976 to PFL_2019 2207060 2240619 33559 61.2 Yes P2-like prophage Prophage 04 PFL_2119 to PFL_2127 2338296

2351794 13498 56.3 Yes Defective prophage in tRNAPro Prophage 05 PFL_3464 to PFL_3456 3979487 3982086 2599 55.3 Yes* Defective prophage in tRNACys Prophage 06 PFL_3739 to PFL_3780 4338335 4395005 56670 57.3 Yes Lambdoid prophage in tRNASer Genomic island 1 (PFGI-1) PFL_4658 to PFL_4753 5378468 5493586 115118 56.4 Yes Putative mobile island PFGI-1 in tRNALys Genomic island 2 (PFGI-2) PFL_4977 to PFL_4984 5728474 5745256 16782 51.5 Yes Genomic island in tRNALeu *, the predicted integrase gene contains frameshift mutation(s). Prophage 01 of Pf-5 and homologous prophages in closely related strains Prophage 01 spans 16,875 bp and consists of genes encoding a myovirus-like tail, holin and lysozyme lytic genes, a putative chitinase gene (PFL_1213), and genes for a repressor protein (PFL_1210) and a leptin binding protein-like bacteriocin, LlpA1 (PFL_1229) (Fig. 1, see Additional file 1).

4 Discussion Our study data differ somewhat from other reports on

4 Discussion Our study data differ somewhat from other reports on the stability of busulfan solutions. The divergences observed between the different studies can be partly explained by non-identical study conditions and parameters. Indeed, whereas Pierre Fabre Laboratories who market Busilvex® recommend a shelf-life in PP syringes or in PVC bags of 12 h at 2–8 °C followed by 3 h at RT [3], the study by Karstens and Krämer [11] found a greater period

of stability (19 h) at the same temperature in syringes. Indeed, the study conducted DAPT by the manufacturer made its conclusions on the basis of a 5 % threshold, whereas the German study, conducted in a hospital environment, used a 10 % specification threshold for refrigerated storage only. Comparing the three containers evaluated in this study, our results demonstrate that the PP syringe offers the best storage regardless of temperature. This is in contrast to the results of the German study, which demonstrated that glass is more suitable, giving 48 or 36 h of stability depending on the storage temperature. Senoo and co-workers [15] also demonstrated that colourless PP syringes offered good stability for busulfan, with their data indicating that under refrigeration, busulfan solution was physically and chemically stable for up to 96 h. Other storage containers are available, including polyolefin/polyamide laminate packs. A recent study evaluated

the stability of busulfan solutions when stored in such packs. Busulfan solutions were prepared in physiological saline at

0.24 mg/mL click here and at 0.12 mg/mL and stored under refrigeration or at RT [16]. Regardless of the drug concentration or storage conditions, there was less than 90 % of the starting concentration remaining after 24 h. Another divergence in results relates to the storage temperature. Whereas the SPC indicates that the period of stability decreases if the temperature increases, the German study surprisingly observed stability for up to 36 h at 13–15 °C and lower stability, 19 h, at 2–8 °C. out Our results indicate that there is a decrease in stability with an increase in storage temperature; based on a 10 % threshold, stability in PP syringes was 24 h at 2–8 °C, 8 h at 13–15 °C, and 8 h at RT. In the study evaluating the polyolefin/polyamide bags, a lower storage temperature was also associated with better stability, at least for the 0.24 mg/mL solution (16.7 h at 4 °C vs. 8.4 h at RT) [16]. Interestingly, the stability of the 0.12 mg/mL solution was largely independent of storage temperature (11.5 h at 4 °C vs. 12.0 h at RT). The second part of our study was an attempt to explain the reduction in busulfan content on storage. It is well known that busulfan is only slightly soluble in water, which justifies the presence of the solvent DMA in the composition of the pharmaceutical product.


Electrochem Soc 2011, 158:H1090-H1096 CrossRef 9 Dei K


Electrochem Soc 2011, 158:H1090-H1096.CrossRef 9. Dei K, Kawase T, Yoneda K, Uchikoshi J, Morita M, Arima K: Characterization of terraces and steps on Cl-terminated Ge(111) surfaces after HCl treatment in N 2 ambient. J Nanosci Nanotech 2011, 11:2968–2972.CrossRef 10. Li X, Bohn PW: Metal-assisted chemical etching in HF/H 2 O 2 produces porous silicon. Appl Phys Lett 2000, 77:2572–2574.CrossRef 11. PF-3084014 Mitsugi N, Nagai K: Pit formation induced by copper contamination on silicon surface immersed in dilute hydrofluoric acid solution. J Electrochem Soc 2004, 151:G302-G306.CrossRef 12. Tsujino K, Matsumura M: Boring deep cylindrical nanoholes in silicon using silver nanoparticles as a catalyst. Adv Mater 2005,

17:1045–1047.CrossRef 13. Tsujino K, Matsumura M: Helical nanoholes click here bored in silicon by wet chemical etching using platinum nanoparticles as catalyst. Electrochem Solid State Lett 2005, 8:C193-C195.CrossRef 14. Tsujino K, Matsumura M: Morphology of nanoholes formed in silicon by wet etching in solutions containing HF and H 2 O 2 at different concentrations using silver nanoparticles as catalysts. Electrochim Acta 2007, 53:28–34.CrossRef 15. Chartier C, Bastide S, Levy-Clement C: Metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon in HF-H 2 O 2 . Electrochim Acta 2008, 53:5509–5516.CrossRef 16. Lee CL, Tsujino K, Kanda Y, Ikeda S, Matsumura M: Pore formation in silicon by wet etching using micrometre-sized metal Selleckchem HSP990 particles as catalysts. J Mat Chem 2008, 18:1015–1020.CrossRef 17. Chourou ML, Fukami K, Sakka T, Virtanen S, Ogata YH: Metal-assisted etching of p-type silicon under anodic polarization in HF solution with and without H 2 O 2 . Electrochim Acta 2010, 55:903–912.CrossRef

Galeterone 18. Yae S, Tashiro M, Abe M, Fukumuro N, Matsuda H: High catalytic activity of palladium for metal-enhanced HF etching of silicon. J Electrochem Soc 2010, 157:D90-D93.CrossRef 19. Vijaykumar T, Raina G, Heun S, Kulkarni GU: Catalytic behavior of individual Au nanocrystals in the local anodic oxidation of Si surfaces. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112:13311–13316.CrossRef 20. Arima K, Kawase T, Nishitani K, Mura A, Kawai K, Uchikoshi J, Morita M: Formation of pyramidal etch pits induced by metallic particles on Ge(100) surfaces in water. ECS Trans 2011, 41:171–178.CrossRef 21. Kawase T, Mura A, Nishitani K, Kawai Y, Kawai K, Uchikoshi J, Morita M, Arima K: Catalytic behavior of metallic particles in anisotropic etching of Ge(100) surfaces in water mediated by dissolved oxygen. J Appl Phys 2012, 111:126102.CrossRef 22. Lee H, Habas SE, Kweskin S, Butcher D, Somorjai GA, Yang PD: Morphological control of catalytically active platinum nanocrystals. Angew Chem Int Ed 2006, 45:7824–7828.CrossRef 23. Fukidome H, Matsumura M: A very simple method of flattening Si(111) surface at an atomic level using oxygen-free water.

Recently, alternative forms of creatine, such as creatine ethyl e

Recently, alternative forms of creatine, such as creatine ethyl ester (CEE) and Kre Alkalyn (KA) have been marketed as superior forms of creatine to CM; Selleck XAV 939 however, as of this time these claims have not been supported by scientific studies. Tallon and Child [137, 138] found that a greater portion of CEE and KA are degraded in the stomach than CM. Additionally, recent PD-1/PD-L1 tumor investigations have shown that 28–42 days of CEE or KA supplementation did not increase muscle creatine concentrations more than CM [139, 140]. Thus, it appears

that CM may be the most effective form of creatine. Beta-alanine Beta-alanine (BA) is becoming an increasingly popular supplement among bodybuilders. Once consumed, BA enters the circulation and is up-taken by skeletal muscle where it is used to synthesize carnosine, a pH buffer in muscle that is particularly important LY2835219 supplier during anaerobic exercise such as sprinting or weightlifting [141]. Indeed, consumption of 6.4 g BA daily for four weeks has been shown to increase muscle carnosine levels by 64.2% [142]. Moreover, supplementation with BA for 4–10 weeks has been

shown to increase knee extension torque by up to 6% [143], improve workload and time to fatigue during high intensity cardio [144–148], improve muscle resistance to fatigue during strength training [149], increase lean mass by approximately 1 kg [147] and significantly

reduce perceptions of fatigue [150]. Additionally, the combination of BA and CM may increase performance of high intensity endurance exercise [151] and has been shown to increase lean mass and decrease body fat percentage more than CM alone [152]. However, not all studies have shown improvements in performance with BA supplementation [143, 153, 154]. To clarify these discrepancies, Hobson et al. [155] conducted a meta-analysis of 15 studies on BA supplementation and concluded that BA significantly increased C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR-7) exercise capacity and improved exercise performance on 60-240 s (ES = 0.665) and >240 s (ES = 0.368) exercise bouts. Although BA appears to improve exercise performance, the long-term safety of BA has only been partially explored. Currently, the only known side effect of BA is unpleasant symptoms of parasthesia reported after consumption of large dosages; however, this can be minimized through consumption of smaller dosages throughout the day [142]. While BA appears to be relatively safe in the short-term, the long-term safety is unknown. In cats, an addition of 5 percent BA to drinking water for 20 weeks has been shown to deplete taurine and result in damage to the brain; however, taurine is an essential amino acid for cats but not for humans and it is unknown if the smaller dosages consumed by humans could result in similar effects [156].

J Occup Rehabil 12(4):257–267CrossRef CNAMTS (2007) Résultats 200

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19) FOR No specified conception on project level   FOR investigat

19) FOR No see more specified conception on project level   FOR investigated the effects of climate

change on Swiss forests. To the question “is there any sort of forest ideal that would play a role in the project?” it was stated: “For our project not really. Well I think people that see the forest as a working forest will probably have their visions of how the TGF-beta inhibition forest should best look like. But for the project, it’s not really, it doesn’t play a big role” (FOR 1, p. 10) POLL Environment–development combination: sustainable land use in the Indian Kodagu region stands for a functioning, diverse landscape, containing enough natural areas for conserving biodiversity while providing important (pollination) ecosystem services for productive agricultural systems A1 (A2), B2 Biodiversity conservation and its potential benefit to crop production were at the core of the project’s underlying notion of sustainable land use, which was embedded in the greater vision “to manage the landscape in a manner that is delivering not just secure livelihoods for the people who are living click here in this area, but also securing the well-being of the (…) biodiversity and the land cover, but also the esthetics of the

landscape” (POLL 2, p. 4) LIV Environment–development combination: a more sustainable development in the Madagascan Manompana corridor comprises local people using the forests (i.e., its products) without clearing them, and using the cleared agricultural land efficiently so that food production is sufficient. The context offers well-regulated land rights and income generating alternatives to agriculture. A minimal level of wellbeing is reached, replacing acute poverty A1, A3, B1, B2 LIV’s sustainability conception concerned a region with rapid forest decline, characterized by subsistence economy and acute poverty among local people. The interviewee added to this rather concrete vision: “my goal is actually to shape the agricultural planning in such a way that in all these different aspects,

as little as possible changes to the negative for the local population. And at the same time for the forest” (LIV, p. 12/13) PALM Environment–development combination: In the investigated Indonesian region, ADP ribosylation factor a sustainable development contains an oilpalm development that allows local smallholders to reach and maintain a decent standard of living in a self-determined way, and at the same time preserves the forests A1 (A3), B1, B4 PALM was concerned with oil palm development in Indonesia. With regard to core characteristics of a sustainable land use, the interviewee said: “I think it has to be something that you can support by itself. So it’s not something that relies too much on outside inputs. It can support by itself and people and not, what do you call that? “propertied” people and not make poor because of it.