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& design – GW, HJN. Acquisition of data – HJN, LK. Statistical analysis – HJN, NDP. Analysis and interpretation of data – GW, HJN, NDP. Drafting of the manuscript – HJN, NDP. Critical revisions to the manuscript – GW, AGL, NDP, PVH. Obtained Funding – GW, HJN. Study Supervision – GW. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Leishmaniasis is an important global public health problem with an estimated 350 million people at risk of infection. The disease is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania and can be classified into three major forms based on their clinical
manifestations. Whilst cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) selleck chemicals and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) represent milder forms of the disease, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with a high mortality rate . Currently, the available antileishmanial drugs are costly, toxic, induce severe side effects, and are ineffective against emerging drug resistant Leishmania strains. Therefore, the study and development of additional safe and effective vaccine regimens for clinical use remains critical. The production of vaccines to combat leishmaniasis is increasingly reliant on subunit antigen constructs. Whilst defined antigens offer advantages in terms of safety, they are typically less immunogenic and require the addition of an adjuvant to be effective [2, 3]. In our attempt to design a vaccine against VL we initiated studies with antigens of Leishmania donovani promastigotes (LAg) in association with liposomes as a vaccine delivery vehicle, as well as an adjuvant.